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Genus Anuraphis

Pear gall aphids

Species Overview: Genus Anuraphis  Anuraphis subterranea 

Genus Anuraphis [Macrosiphini]

Medium sized aphids, but the fundatrices are large. The siphunculi are longer than the cauda and have closely-spaced rows of densely-packed spinules or nodules. The abdomen of the alate has rather flat round spinal and marginal tubercles on most tergites, and a dark patch centred on abdominal tergites 4-6 or 5-6.

There are about 10 species worldwide. The fundatrices feed in spring on pear (Pyrus, Rosaceae), typically crumpling or rolling the leaves into pseudogalls. Their offspring develop into alates which migrate to the roots of daisies (Asteraceae) and umbellifers (Apiaceae). They are sheltered by ants when living on umbellifer roots.

 

Anuraphis subterranea (Pear - hogweed aphid)

The plump-bodied fundatrices of Anuraphis subterranea are dark brown. Anuraphis subterranea antennae are short. The terminal process of the last antennal segment is longer than the base of that segment. There are large marginal tubercles on abdominal tergites 1-7, and often also spinal tubercles. The siphunculi have close-set rows of fine spinules. The cauda is helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view. Their offspring are brownish-green to brownish-black (this feature distinguishes them from Anuraphis farfarae whose nymphs are yellowish-green) and these all develop to brown emigrant alates.

The alates have a broad dark patch on abdominal tergites 4-6. This patch is almost solid in spring migrants but is smaller with a large window in alates produced on the secondary host.

The fundatrices live in the rolled and crumpled leaves of pear (Pyrus). The living leaf tissue is turned characteristically reddish as shown in the second picture above (with Anuraphis farfarae the leaf tissue usually remains green). Their summer hosts are umbellifers such as cow parsley (Heracleum sphondylium) and wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa). Here Anuraphis subterranea live inside the lower leaf sheaths and at the stem bases. Anuraphis subterranea are attended by ants on the summer host. The pear-hogweed aphid is found throughout Europe, North Africa and eastward to Iran.

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Acknowledgements

We have made provisional identifications from high resolution photos of living specimens, along with host plant identity. In the great majority of cases, identifications have been confirmed by microscopic examination of preserved specimens. We have used the keys and species accounts of Blackman & Eastop (1994)  and Blackman & Eastop (2006)  supplemented with Blackman (1974) , Stroyan (1977) , Stroyan (1984) , Blackman & Eastop (1984) , Heie (1980-1995) , Dixon & Thieme (2007)  and Blackman (2010) . We fully acknowledge these authors as the source for the (summarized) taxonomic information we have presented. Any errors in identification or information are ours alone, and we would be very grateful for any corrections. For assistance on the terms used for aphid morphology we suggest the figure  provided by Blackman & Eastop (2006).

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References

  •  Dixon, A.F.G. & Thieme, T. (2007). Aphids on deciduous trees. Naturalist's Handbooks 29. Richmond