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Aphids Find them How to ID AphidBlog
"It has long been an axiom of mine that the little things are infinitely the most important" (Sherlock Holmes)

 

 

Aphid identification

characteristics of genera

Family Aphididae (aphids):  Subfamily Anoeciinae:  Genus Anoecia  Subfamily Aphidinae:  Tribe Aphidini:  Genus Aphis  Hyalopterus  Melanaphis  Rhopalosiphum  Toxoptera  Tribe Macrosiphini:  Genus Acyrthosiphon  Amphorophora  Anuraphis  Aulacorthum  Brachycaudus  Brevicoryne  Capitophorus  Cavariella  Ceruraphis  Chaetosiphon  Clypeoaphis  Coloradoa  Corylobium  Cryptomyzus  Delphiniobium  Dysaphis  Elatobium  Ericaphis  Hayhurstia  Hyadaphis  Hyalopteroides  Hyperomyzus  Illinoia  Liosomaphis  Macrosiphoniella  Macrosiphum  Megoura  Metopeurum  Metopolophium  Microlophium  Myzaphis  Myzus  Nasonovia  Neomyzus  Neotoxoptera Ovatomyzus  Ovatus  Phorodon  Rhopalomyzus  Rhopalosiphoninus  Sitobion  Staticobium  Uroleucon  Wahlgreniella  Subfamily Calaphidinae:  Tribe Calaphidini:  Genus Betulaphis  Calaphis  Callipterinella  Clethrobius  Crypturaphis  Euceraphis  Monaphis  Symydobius  Tribe Panaphidini:  Genus Chromaphis  Eucallipterus  Hoplocallis Myzocallis  Panaphis  Pterocallis  Takecallis  Tinocallis  Tuberculatus  Subfamily Chaitophorinae:  Genus Chaitophorus  Periphyllus  Subfamily Drepanosiphinae:  Genus Drepanosiphum  Subfamily Eriosomatinae:  Tribe Eriosomatini:  Genus Eriosoma  Tetraneura  Tribe Fordini:  Genus: Aploneura  Forda  Tribe Pemphigini:  Genus Pachypappa  Pemphigus  Thecabius  Subfamily Hormaphidinae:  Genus Hamamelistes  Subfamily Lachninae:  Tribe Eulachnini:  Genus Cinara  Essigella  Eulachnus  Schizolachnus  Tribe Lachnini:  Genus Lachnus  Maculolachnus  Tuberolachnus  Tribe Tramini:  Genus Protrama  Trama  Subfamily Phyllaphidinae:  Genus Phyllaphis  Subfamily Mindarinae:  Genus Mindarus  Subfamily Pterocommatinae:  Genus Pterocomma  Subfamily Thelaxinae:  Genus Glyphina  Thelaxes  Family Adelgidae:  Genus Adelges  Pineus 
    This list is by no means exhaustive. There are perhaps 500 aphid genera worldwide and, thus far, we concentrate upon those most likely to be found in Europe, albeit many have a cosmopolitan distribution.

Family Aphididae

Subfamily Anoeciinae  

Genus Anoecia

Identification: Medium-sized aphids which may be winged or wingless. Wingless adults (shown here) are greenish-gray or gray with a dark sclerotic dorsal abdominal plate. The winged form (see species overview) has a characteristic dark posteriodorsal abdominal patch, a white patch and a large black pterostigmal spot on the forewing. Young nymphs are white or cream in colour.

About 24 species in North America, Europe and eastern Asia. Some host alternate from dogwood (Cornaceae) to roots of grasses (Poaceae), with the oviparae laying their eggs on the bark of the trunk. Other species live year round on the roots of grasses (Poaceae) or sedges (Cyperaceae).

Species Overview 

   

Subfamily Aphidinae  

Genus Aphis [Aphidini]

Identification: Very small to rather large aphids. Adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. The body is broadly oval in shape, never very elongate. The dorsal cuticle is membranous with a variable amount of dark sclerotic markings. Siphunculi are more or less cylindrical or tapering, never distinctly swollen. The cauda is usually more or less elongate. The legs are variably pigmented, but rarely entirely dark.

There are about 500 species on a great variety of hosts. Some are host specific - others are found on a great variety of different plants, but never on sedges (Cyperaceae) and very rarely on grasses (Poaceae). Many species host alternate and many are ant attended. Most species retain a sexual stage in the life cycle, but some species have populations that reproduce viviparously year round. Many species are important crop pests.

Species overview

   

 

Genus Hyalopterus [Aphidini]

Identification: Small to medium sized elongate aphids, the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. They are usually pale green mottled with darker green and most are covered with a white waxy meal. Some aphids on the summer host may be dark pink rather than green. The antennae are shorter than the body, and the siphunculi are very short, thicker and darker towards their tips. The cauda is markedly longer than the siphunculi.

A small genus with only 3 species. They may retain the sexual stage in the life cycle and alternate between plum (Prunus spp.) in winter/spring and common reed (Phragmites) in summer, or may live year round on either host. They are not attended by ants. One species is an important pest of plum trees which are affected by fungi growing on the honeydew-coated leaves.

Species overview 

   

 

Genus Melanaphis [Aphidini]

Identification: Small to medium-sized to elongate oval or pear-shaped aphids closely related to Rhopalosiphum aphids. The siphunculi are shorter than the cauda. The abdomen has dark dorsal markings. The winged forms have dark forewing veins with the media vein twice-branched.

There are about 25 species of Melanaphis aphids. The three European species are associated with Rosaceae and Poaceae, whilst the remaining East Asian species are associated with Miscanthus or Arundinaria.

Species overview 

   

 

Genus Rhopalosiphum [Aphidini]

Identification: Small to medium-sized green or brownish aphids, oval to rather elongate in shape. Antennal and median tubercles are similarly but weakly developed and the antennae are shorter than the body. Marginal tubercles are usually present. The siphunculi are longer than the cauda and have an apical expansion followed by a constriction below a strong flange. The cauda is finger- or tongue-shaped. Winged forms have a dorsal abdominal pigmented pattern.

About 14 species worldwide which host alternate between plum (Prunus: Rosaceae) as primary hosts and grasses (Poaceae) and sedges (Cyperaceae) as secondary hosts. They may be attended by ants. The genus includes several important cereal pests.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Toxoptera [Aphidini]

Identification: Small to medium-sized aphids. The median tubercle on the head is a little lower than the antennal tubercles. The dorsal body cuticle is pale and membranous, apart from a narrow dusky transverse band on tergite 8. Marginal tubercles are usually present. The siphunculi are short and dark and slightly longer than the cauda. The cauda is finger-shaped, blunt, dark and slightly constricted at about one third of its length. The aphid has a stridulatory apparatus consisting of ridges on the abdomen and peg-like hairs on the hind tibia.

About 4 species worldwide on various trees and shrubs. There is no sexual stage in the life cycle, so species everywhere are anholocyclic. They are of east Asian origin, but two species are now widely distributed on citrus and various shrubs.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Acyrthosiphon [Macrosiphini]

Identification:Aphids are rather large broadly spindle-shaped, short-haired aphids with long antennae, legs, siphunculi and cauda. They are usually green but sometimes brownish, pink, or yellow. The antennal tubercles are well developed, usually smooth with diverging inner sides. The median frontal tubercle is very small or absent. The antennae are about as long as the body or longer. The siphunculi are cylindrical or tapering, occasionally with 1-3 rows of hexagonal cells below the distinct flange. The cauda is tongue- or finger-shaped, often slightly constricted.

A genus of about 80 species worldwide living without host alternation on various dicots, particularly Fabaceae, Rosaceae, and Euphorbiaceae.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Amphorophora [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Medium-sized to large rather pale greenish aphids. Adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. The body is elongate or oval, with long legs and antennae, the latter longer than body. The antennal tubercles are well developed, with the inner margins nearly straight and distinctly divergent. The median frontal tubercle is less well developed. The siphunculi are long, distinctly but usually only slightly swollen on apical half, with a clearly marked apical flange, and without regular reticulations before apex. The cauda is not very elongate, somewhat blunt at apex.

About 27 species mostly in North America, but with some in Europe and Asia. About half live on berries (Rubus: Rosaceae) and a few live on ferns. They have no sexual stage in the life cycle, they do not host alternate and are not ant attended.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Anuraphis [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Medium sized aphids, but the fundatrices (shown here) are large. The siphunculi are longer than the cauda and have closely-spaced rows of densely-packed spinules or nodules. The abdomen of the alate has rather flat round spinal and marginal tubercles on most tergites, and a dark patch centred on abdominal tergites 4-6 or 5-6.

A genus of about 10 species, the fundatrices of which feed in spring on pear (Pyrus, Rosaceae) typically crumpling or rolling the leaves into pseudogalls. Their offspring develop into alates which migrate to the roots of daisies (Asteraceae) and umbellifers (Apiaceae). They have a sexual stage in the life cycle, and are sheltered by ants when living on umbellifer roots.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Aulacorthum [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Medium sized aphids the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. The body is pear shaped. They may be yellowish, green, reddish or brown and often have a patch of different colour at the base of each siphunculus. The antennal tubercles are well developed with near parallel inner sides. The antennae are usually longer than the body. The siphunculi are cylindrical or slightly swollen and the cauda is usually tongue shaped.

There are 48 species on a great variety of hosts. Some are host specific, but many are highly polyphagous and are important crop pests. They have no sexual stage in the life cycle, they do not host alternate and are not ant attended.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Brachycaudus [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Rather small to medium-sized oval aphids the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. They have very low lateral prominences and the antennae are shorter than the body. The abdominal dorsum in the apterae is variably sclerotized and is never mealy or waxy. The siphunculi are short to moderate in length and the cauda is very short and often semicircular.

A genus of 50 species found mainly in the Palearctic. About 14 species have plum (Prunus spp) as the primary host. There are species groups associated with different secondary hosts - two of the most common species use daisies (Asteraceae). Other species do not host alternate, living year round on a variety of plant species. Some species still have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but most do not. Brachycaudus aphids may be attended by ants. Some are important crop or fruit tree pests.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Brevicoryne [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Medium sized aphids that are grey or green with a dark head. Adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. The antennal tubercles are not developed. The body is covered with greyish-white mealy wax. The antennae are usually about half as long as body. The siphunculi are dusky or dark, barrel shaped with a small flange and usually somewhat shorter than the cauda. The cauda is short, broad and triangular.

There are about 9 species mainly feeding on different species of the cabbage family (Brassicaceae) but with some species on other plants such as goosefoot (Chenopodium: Amaranthaceae) and honeysuckle (Caprifoliaceae). They do not host alternate, but generally retain a sexual stage in the life cycle, with eggs produced to overwinter. They are not attended by ants. One species is an important pest of Brassica crops.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Capitophorus [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Pale or almost translucent slender aphids with elongate legs and antennae. Wingless viviparae have long capitate hairs at least on the head and posterior abdominal segments. Winged viviparae only have short hairs and have a dark dorsal abdominal patch.

There are about 30 species worldwide. Some host alternate from oleasters (Elaeagnaceae) to daisies (Asteraceae) and docks (Polygonaceae) whilst others live year round on the secondary host.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Cavariella [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Small to medium-sized green, straw-coloured or ochreous-reddish aphids. Adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. The body is rather elongate and a little flattened. The antennal tubercles are low and the antennae are short in apterae, longer in alatae. The cuticle in apterae is strongly sclerotic, but not pigmented. Winged forms have a trapezoidal black patch on dorsum in front of the siphunculi. Siphunculi cylindrical or clavate with a small rim at apex, very distinctly longer than the cauda which is rather blunt. The supracaudal process on the precaudal tergite is usually diagnostic for the genus.

There are 31 species in the world. They host alternate from various willow (Salicaceae) species as the primary host to various umbellifers (Apiaceae) as the secondary host. Most species retain a sexual stage in the life cycle. They are not attended by ants.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Ceruraphis [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Small to medium-sized dark aphids the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. The antennal tubercles are undeveloped or very weakly developed, not projecting beyond convex middle part of front of head in dorsal view. The siphunculi are entirely dark.

A small genus of only 4 species. They retain a sexual stage in their life cycle and host alternate between viburnum (Adoxaceae) as the primary host and sedges (Cyperaceae) as the secondary host. They are not attended by ants.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Chaetosiphon [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Chaetosiphon aphids are rather small, pale yellow to green, and spindle-shaped. The head has well developed antennal tubercles and a fairly large median tubercle. The antennal terminal process is usually quite long. The dorsal hairs of apterae are capitate and usually arise from tubercles. The rostrum is rather long. Their dorsal cuticle is densely covered with small warts. Their siphunculi are pale and cylindrical. The cauda is elongate triangular and much shorter than the siphunculi. Alates have a dark head and thorax, much shorter non-capitate hairs, a large dark dorsal abdominal patch and dark wing veins.

There are 17 Chaetosiphon species worldwide living on the family Rosaceae. They do not host alternate and are not attended by ants. The males may be winged or wingless.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Clypeoaphis [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Clypeoaphis are small pale aphids. They have no antennal tubercles, and the front of the head is convex. The clypeus is dark and bulbous. The antennae are usually six-segmented and much shorter than the body. The siphunculi are short, with a weak flange. The cauda is thumb-shaped and longer than the siphunculi.

There are one or possibly two species Clypeoaphis that feed on members of the amaranth family (Amaranthanceae). They do not host alternate and are not attended by ants.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Coloradoa [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Coloradoa are small green or reddish globose (globe-shaped) aphids. They have a very convex frons with no antennal tubercles. Their antennae are always shorter than the body, and the terminal process is always longer than the base of the last antennal segment. The dorsal body hairs are short or very short and are expanded at the tip. The apical rostral segment is acutely pointed with concave sides. The siphunculi vary in size and shape.

There are 29 species of Coloradoa worldwide. They feed without host alternation on members of the tribe Anthemideae in the aster family (Asteraceae). Males are usually small and apterous

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Corylobium [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Green, sometimes reddish, medium sized spindle-shaped aphids the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless The antennae are longer than the body and the inner margins of the antennal tubercles diverge. The body has numerous capitate hairs arising from tubercles on the body - just visible in this image. The siphunculi are long and thin and the cauda is very short and triangular.

There is only 1 species in this genus which lives on hazel (Corylaceae). It is widely distributed in Europe and has been introduced to North America. It retains a sexual stage in its life cycle, but does not host alternate and is not attended by ants.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Cryptomyzus [Macrosiphini]

Identification: A genus of fragile pale whitish, straw-coloured or very pale green aphids the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. The body has numerous capitate hairs. The dorsal cuticle in wingless forms is smooth, colourless and membranous. Winged forms have a blackish dorsal patch in front of siphunculi which may be broken up by colourless lines or patches. The siphunculi are slender very slightly widened distally and longer than the cauda. Cauda rather blunt.

Typically, Cryptomyzus retains a sexual stage in its life cycle and host alternate from species of currant (Ribes in Grossularicaceae) where they cause leaf distortion to various species of mint (Labiaceae). However, some forms live continuously on currant or mint.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Delphiniobium [Macrosiphini]

Identification: A genus of large aphids which tend to have aposematic colouration because they sequester toxins from the host plant Aconitum. The siphunculi are usually dark at least distally, often with a swollen section at about the midlength. They are 0.15-0.26 times the body length. The cauda is also dark. The thoracic spiracles are much larger than the abdominal ones.

There are eleven species described in this genus mostly found in East Asia. One species Delphiniobium junackianum (pictured here) has a wider distribution from north-west and central Europe to west Siberia. It feeds on monk's hood (Aconitum) and Delphinium, and produces sexual forms in autumn.

Species Overview 

   

Guest image, copyright Nigel Gilligan, all rights reserved.

 

Genus Dysaphis [Macrosiphini]

Identification: On the primary host they are medium-sized, plump-bodied aphids, greenish, bluish or pinkish grey in colour and covered in wax meal. The adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. Characteristic features are the short, often helmet-shaped cauda and the presence of spinal tubercles on head and posterior abdominal segments.

A palaearctic genus of about 110 species. Most species retain a sexual stage in the life cycle and host alternate. Spring colonies distort and discolour the leaves of apple and related trees (Rosaceae), before migrating to secondary hosts in umbellifers (Apiaceae) and other families. Colonies are almost always attended by ants. Several species are important pests of fruit trees.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Elatobium [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Small elongate-oval aphids the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. Siphunculi are cylindrical, long, thin and pale, with a well developed apical flange. The cauda is pointed.

This genus comprises only 6 species which live on spruce (Picea spp.) and fir (Abies spp). They are cryptic when feeding. Some species (and some populations within species) have retained a sexual stage in the life cycle, whilst others have lost it. They do not host alternate and are not attended by ants. One species is an important pest of spruce.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Ericaphis [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Ericaphis are rather small pale green or brown, often shiny aphids. The antennal and median tubercles on the head are variously developed and the antennae are shorter than the body. Apterae have no secondary rhinaria on their antennae, whilst those of alatae have a few on segment III only. Dorsal body hairs are short and blunt. The dorsal cuticle of apterae is wrinkled or corrugated. The apterae lack dark dorsal markings, but alatae have a dark dorsal abdominal patch. The siphunculi are of moderate length, cyclindrical or tapering, and often slightly curved outwards at the end. The cauda is finger or tongue-shaped.

Ericaphis feed on heaths (Ericaceae), Rosaceae and Liliaceae. There are nine species in the world of which 3 are native to Europe, and 6 to the Americas. Some of the American species have been introduced to Europe.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Hayhurstia [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Hayhurstia are medium-sized aphids, with very small slightly swollen siphunculi. The siphunculi have a small flange and are distinctly shorter than the cauda. The cauda is finger-shaped.

There is only one species in this genus. This feeds on members of the amaranth family (Amaranthaceae). They have a sexual stage in the life cycle overwintering as eggs, but there is no host alternation. The single species is thought to be an important vector of plant viruses. These viruses result in considerable yield loss of peppers (Capsicum spp.) and potatoes (Solanum tuberosum)

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Hyadaphis [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Medium sized elongate-oval aphids. The antennae are shorter than the body. Siphunculi are 0.6 - 1.4 x length of cauda and usually slightly swollen in middle or distal part, with an apical flange. The cauda is dark or pale and is tongue- or finger-shaped, at least 1.4× its basal width in dorsal view.

There are about thirteen described species in this genus. Several species are known to be pests, including Hyadaphis foeniculi (coriander aphid) and Hyadaphis passerinii (honeysuckle aphid). They host alternate from honeysuckle (Caprifoliaceae) species as the primary host to various umbellifers (Apiaceae) as the secondary host. Others complete their entire life cycle on honeysuckle.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Hyalopteroides [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Medium sized elongate-oval green aphids, the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. Antennal tubercles are well developed but rather low. The antennae are shorter than the body. The siphunculi are short and cylindrical with a barely visible apical flange and the cauda is long, tongue-shaped and blunt.

There is only one species in this genus which lives along the midline on the uppersides of leaves of cocksfoot grass (Poaceae: Dactylis glomerata) in Europe east to Russia and in North America. Males have been recorded, but most populations have probably lost the sexual stage in the life cycle. It does not host alternate and is not attended by ants.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Hyperomyzus [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Medium sized aphids, the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. The frontal region of head is smooth. The dorsum of abdomen is not sclerotic and pigmented. The siphunculi are swollen.

There are 18 species some of which host alternate with Currants (Ribes spp.) as the primary host and various daisies (Asteraceae) and Scrophulariaceae as secondary hosts. Others remain on a single host in those families. All species retain a sexual stage in the life cycle and overwinter as eggs. They are not attended by ants.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Illinoia [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Medium-sized aphids, the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. The antennal tubercles are well developed with their inner faces divergent. The median tubercle is frequently also well developed. The siphunculi are slightly swollen on distal part, narrowing to reticulated subapical part (at least 3-4 rows of rather large polygonal cells). The cauda is shorter than siphunculus, slender and finger shaped.

There are about 45 mostly North American species, although some have been introduced to other parts of the world including Europe. Most species retain a sexual stage in the life cycle but there is no host alternation. Many species in the two main subgenera are associated with the heath and rhododendron family (Ericaceae), but others feed on taxonomically diverse plants. They are not attended by ants. Some species are important pests of ericaceous plants.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Liosomaphis [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Medium-sized aphids, the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. The head is smooth, with the antennal tubercles weakly developed. The dorsum is unpigmented in viviparous females but with some pigmentation in winged forms. The siphunculi are markedly clavate and swollen, with the maximum width of the swollen part broader than the base. Cauda tongue-shaped and longer than its basal width.

There are 5 species in this genus all living on barberry or Oregon grape (Berberidaceae). They retain a sexual stage in the life cycle but there is no host alternation. They are not attended by ants. One species is a pest of ornamental barberry bushes.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Longicaudus [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Apterae are generally small to medium sized and pale coloured. The siphunculi are cone-shaped or cylindrical. With one exception (Longicaudus naumanni) the siphunculi are shorter than the cauda, often much shorter (<0.5 times). The siphunculi may be absent in fundatrices. The cauda is finger-shaped or tongue-shaped.

There are eight species in the genus most host alternating between rose (Rosa) and members of the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae)

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Macrosiphoniella [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Green to dark brown, often pulverulent aphids, the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. Dorsum not sclerotic, if pigmented then only in small localized hair-bearing sclerites. Siphunculi long, flangeless and cylindrical or nearly so, or with a slight taper from base to apex. The reticulate zone covers about one quarter the length of the siphunculi.

Lives on chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum), tansy (Tanacetum) and other members of the Anthemidae in the Asteraceae. They retain a sexual stage in the life cycle but there is no host alternation and they are not attended by ants. Several species can be important pests of herbs and chrysanthemum.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Macrosiphum [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Large spindle-shaped pink or green aphids, with long legs and antennae, the latter usually longer than the body. The adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. The antennal tubercles are rather high, smooth, and divergent. Siphunculi are long, flanged and not swollen, with a zone of regular polygonal reticulations covering the one-tenth to one-sixth near the end of the siphunculus. The cauda is always pale and very elongate.

On rose (Rosaceae) and many other hosts including teasel (Dipsacaceae), Apiaceae, Valerianaceae and Ranunculaceae. They do not host alternate and are not attended by ants.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Megoura [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Medium to large aphids, the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. Head with well-developed antennal tubercles, the inner faces of which are smooth and broadly divergent. Siphunculi somewhat swollen in middle, and either entirely black or dusky with black apices.

About 7 species feeding on members of the bean family (Fabaceae). They have a sexual stage in the life cycle overwintering as eggs, but there is no host alternation. They are not attended by ants. One species is an important vector of bean viruses which result in considerable yield loss.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Metopeurum [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Medium-sized aphids, the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. Antennal tubercles very weakly developed. Siphunculi thin dusky or dark over at least half of length, with polygonal reticulation usually extending over more than distal 20%. Cauda tapering, triangular, less than 1.5 times longer than its basal width. Note the photo is of alatiform 4th instar nymph, not the adult.

There are 11 species in this genus living primarily on daisies (Asteraceae). They have a sexual stage in the life cycle overwintering as eggs, but there is no host alternation. They may be attended by ants.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Metopolophium [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Medium to large aphids, the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. Wingless adults have well-marked, rather divergent antennal tubercles, and a rather distinct though lower median tubercle. Siphunculi cylindrical, rather expanded at base; pale, not reticulate apically, and with a small to moderate apical flange. Cauda elongate, rather blunt. Wingless forms not usually pigmented, but winged forms may be.

Some species host alternate between rose (Rosaceae) and many species of grasses (Poaceae). They commonly have a sexual stage in the life cycle overwintering as eggs. However, some species spend the whole year on grasses overwintering viviparously.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Microlophium [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Large (body length more than 3 mm.) spindle-shaped aphid, the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. Antennae much longer than body length. Antennal tubercles smooth, with inner faces divergent. Siphunculi long 2.3 - 3.1 times the length of the cauda, tapering with a large flange.

There are only four species in this genus living mostly on nettles (Urticaceae). They have a sexual stage in the life cycle overwintering as eggs. They are not attended by ants, unlike the other common species on nettles (Aphis urticae) which is nearly always ant-attended.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Myzus [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Rather small to medium-sized green, brownish, or blackish to shiny black aphids, sometimes rather flattened. Adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. Head with well-developed more or less convergent antennal tubercles. Antennae in wingless forms usually rather curved. Dorsal cuticle of wingless forms uniformly sclerotic, varying from nearly colourless to deep black. Winged forms with a solid pigmented area occupying the mid-abdominal dorsum, and further segmental bars. The siphunculi are rather long, tapering, usually distinctly flanged. The cauda is acutely triangular.

There are about 55 species. In colder climates they usually have a sexual stage in the life cycle alternating between various plum species (Prunus: Rosaceae) and a great variety of secondary hosts. In warmer climates they may reproduce viviparously throughout the year. They are not attended by ants. There are three highly polyphagous species which are important pests.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Nasonovia [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Medium-sized green or reddish, rather shiny aphids with a well-marked dorsal sclerotic pattern of pigmented paired intersegmental muscle plates. Adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. There are distinct antennal and median tubercles and the antennae are rather long. In winged forms there are often dark segmental bars connecting the muscle plates on abdominal segments 3-5. The siphunculi are rather long, cylindrical, with little or no apical reticulation The cauda is elongate and rather blunt finger-shaped.

About 30 species worldwide which host alternate between currants (Grossulariaceae) and various daisies (Asteraceae), among which the most important are lettuce (Lactuca), Crepis and various species of Hieracium. They are not attended by ants. One species is an important cosmopolitan pest of lettuce.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Neomyzus [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Medium-sized aphids with with distinctive black dorsal markings. The lateral frontal tubercles have converging inner sides. Alates have secondary rhinaria on antennal segment IV. They were previously placed as a subgenus of Aulacorthum but differ in several morphological features that place them closer to the Myzus group of genera.

There are about eight Asian species including one which is now cosmopolitan.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Neotoxoptera [Macrosiphini]

Identification:These are medium-sized aphids which look rather like some Myzus species. The adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. The siphunculi are swollen and the wing veins are dark-bordered..

There are 6 species. Three species do not host alternate but spend their entire life cycle on onion (Alliaceae), Caryophyllaceae or Violaceae. They have no sexual stage in the life cycle but reproduce all year parthenogenetically. The other three species host alternate from Caprifoliaceae to generally unknown secondary hosts.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Ovatomyzus [Macrosiphini]

Identification: A genus of very small fragile pale aphids the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. The characteristics of the genus are intermediate between Ovatus and Myzus. The apterae have well developed antennal tubercles with slightly diverging inner margins. The antennae are as long as the body or longer with a very long terminal process. The siphunculi are long, slender, cylindrical or slightly swollen. The cauda is tongue shaped, slightly constricted near the base.

There are 3 species worldwide. Ovatomyzus have lost the sexual stage in their life cycle, and feed all year round on plants in the mint (Lamiaceae) and borage (Boraginaceae) families.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Ovatus [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Small to medium sized greenish aphids, the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. Antennae are curved and longer than the body. Antennal tubercles are well developed with two additional bumps on head The siphunculi are longer than the cauda. The winged forms have no black central abdominal patch.

There are about 10 palaearctic species of Ovatus, three of which host-alternate between hawthorn and Apple (Rosaceae: Pyroidea) and mints (Labiatae), while the others live all-year-round on the former secondary hosts. They are not attended by ants. One species is a pest of mint.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Phorodon [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Adult pale green to yellowish green aphids with darker green longitudinal stripes. The adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. Aphids are medium-sized on winter hosts (2.0 - 2.6mm long), but small on summer hosts. They have characteristic pointed projections on the inside of the antennal tubercles. The siphunculi are pale, medium length, thicker at their bases and slightly curved outwards at their tips. The cauda is short, pale and blunt. Winged forms have has a black patch of fused cross bars on the upper surface of the abdomen.

A small genus of 4 species in Europe, north Africa, and south-west Asia and introduced to North America and New Zealand. They have a sexual stage in the life cycle and alternate between the primary host of blackthorn and plum (Prunaceae) and the secondary host, hops (Cannabidaceae). They are not attended by ants. One species is the main pest on hops causing damage directly and through virus transmission.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Rhopalomyzus [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Medium-sized yellowish to black aphids, the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. The head has well-developed antennal tubercles. Marginal tubercles are frequently present on the prothorax and abdominal segments 2-6. The siphunculi are swollen with a small, but well developed flange, slightly constricted just under the flange. The cauda is tongue-shaped and shorter than the siphunculus. Winged forms have head, thorax and dorsal abdominal cross bars or a large dorsal abdominal patch.

There are 9 species host alternating from honeysuckle (Lonicera) to grasses. They have a sexual stage in the life cycle overwintering as eggs on honeysuckle.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Rhopalosiphoninus [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Medium sized aphids either with the frontal region of head adorned with small scabrous spinules, or with the abdominal dorsum is more or less sclerotic and pigmented. Apart from a constriction near the apex, the apical two thirds of the siphunculi are strongly and sharply swollen, the apical part before the flange with reticulate sculpturing. The cauda is short and triangular.

There are about 19 species living on a great variety of plants, including Labiatae, Rosaceae, Iridaceae, Araliaceae and Grossulariaceae. They often live in cryptic habitats near the ground. Some species host alternate but others remain on one host.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Sitobion [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Medium-sized green to dull brownish-green or reddish-brown aphids, with blackish antennae. Adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. They typically have an intersegmental sclerotic pattern, but some species may have a more or less completely brownish sclerotic tergum. Siphunculi are rather long, blackish and sclerotic, with the apical part reticulated and a small but distinct flange. The cauda is pale, elongate and finger-shaped from half to nine-tenths as long as siphunculi.

A large genus of over 80 species worldwide. A few species alternate from Rosaceae to grasses, but the majority of species remain on grasses (Poaceae) all year. On grasses they may or may not have a sexual stage. Even within one species, clones may produce males and egg laying females in the autumn or only produce parthenogenetic females. They are not attended by ants. At least one species is a serious pest of cereals.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Staticobium [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Staticobium are medium to large aphids. The adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. In both apterae and alates the lateral frontal tubercles are broad, low and smooth. Their antennae have a relatively long terminal process with a few rhinaria on segment III. Spiracles are covered by tubercle-like opercula, an adaptation to regular immersion. The siphunculi are more or less cylindrical , tapering, sclerotic and pigmented with reticulation below a small flange. Staticobium aphids are morphologically similar to Macrosiphoniella but the antesiphuncular sclerites are absent. They are also similar to Sitobion aphids,  but the dorsum is not completely sclerotic, pleurospinal sclerites are absent from the alate and the reticulate area on the siphunculus is larger than in Sitobion.

Staticobium feed on members of the Plumbaginaceae. They are not visited by ants. The distribution is holarctic with 12 species worldwide.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Uroleucon [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Medium-sized to rather large aphids. Adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. The siphunculi are long with a zone of polygonal reticulation occupying the subapical 0.15-0.4 of length. The dorsal hairs are not thick and distinctly capitate.

A large genus of 226 species distributed worldwide associated almost entirely with daisies (Asteraceae) and bellflowers (Campanulaceae). They do not host alternate, but usually have a sexual stage in their life cycle. Some species may be ant attended.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Wahlgreniella [Macrosiphini]

Identification: Rather large aphids which are similar to Amphorophora in many respects, but have fewer caudal hairs. Adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. The antennal tubercles are well developed with diverging or parallel inner sides. Their antennae are rather long and thin. The siphunculi are long and swollen with no reticulation and a distinct flange. The cauda is tongue shaped.

A small genus with only 6 species in the world. Most live on plants of the heather family (Ericacaceae), but with one on rose (Rosaceae) in North America. They do not host alternate, except perhaps Wahlgreniella nervata which may alternate from Arbutus to Rosa. They are not ant attended.

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Subfamily Calaphidinae

Genus Betulaphis [Calaphidini]

Identification: Small, rather flat oval aphids with short 6-segmented antennae. Adult viviparae may be winged or wingless with a short, conical cauda and a bilobed anal plate. Oviparae have dark dorsal markings and the posterior abdomen is extended as an egg-laying organ. Males are wingless with extensive dark dorsal markings.

A genus of 6 or 7 species rather evenly distributed through the holarctic usually feeding on the undersides of birch (Betula spp.) leaves. They have a sexual stage in their life cycle but do not host alternate and are not attended by ants.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Calaphis [Calaphidini]

Identification: Delicate pale-coloured aphids with rather long thin legs. The antennal tubercles are well-developed and the antennae are longer than the body. They sometimes have distinctive markings and/or dark wing veins, and the radial sector in the forewing is absent or indistinct. In some species all viviparae are alate but others have both apterous and alate viviparae.

There are about 15 species, 11 of which are in North America, two are European and one is east Asian. All except one live on birch (Betula spp.). They have a sexual stage in their life cycle but do not host alternate and are usually not attended by ants.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Callipterinella [Calaphidini]

Identification: Aphids are small to medium-sized and the viviparae may be winged or wingless. They are very variable in colour from green to brown, yellow or reddish commonly with a brown vertex to the head and usually other dark dorsal markings. The body is covered with long strong hairs and the antennae are shorter than the body. The cauda is constricted and knobbed, and the siphunculi are dark with rows of minute spinules. Winged forms have the wing venation strongly marked.

A genus of three species all of which live on birch (Betula) leaves or growing shoots. Colonies may be dispersed or aggregated. They have a sexual stage in their life cycle, but do not host alternate. They are usually attended by ants.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Clethrobius [Calaphidini]

Identification: Large hairy brown aphids. All adult viviparae and males are winged; the ovipara is wingless. The antennae are shorter than the body. The abdominal dorsum has pigmentation confined to marginal sclerites plus a few bands. There are also bands of light wax pulverulence on the abdomen. The siphunculi are short and truncate, and the cauda is knobbed.

Three or four palaearctic species living on twigs and young branches of alder (Alnus) and birch (Betula) species. They have a sexual stage in their life cycle, but do not host alternate. They may be attended by ants.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Crypturaphis [Calaphidini]

Identification: Wingless females are dorsoventrally flattened and have peculiar projections on the head and prothorax. The antennae are shorter than the body. The apterae resemble coccids rather than aphids. Alates have a more typical 'aphid appearance'.

This genus has only one species, which lives on the leaves of Italian alder (Alnus cordata). It has a sexual stage in its life cycle, but does not host alternate. It is not attended by ants.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Euceraphis [Calaphidini]

Identification: Rather large active but fragile aphids with long thin legs. All adults apart from oviparae are winged insects. They secrete a bluish white wax, often in the form of tufts on their legs. The antennae are usually longer than the body. The birch-feeding species may have black dorsal abdominal markings. The cauda is knobbed and the anal plate is rounded. The oviparae are large, apterous, yellowish to dark brown with dark dorsal abdominal markings, and with the posterior abdominal segments extended into an ovipositor-like structure.

A genus of 6 or more species living on the young shoots or the underside of birch and alder (Betulaceae). Adults may be found as accidentals on many plants besides their true hosts. They have a sexual stage in their life cycle, but do not host alternate and are not attended by ants. One species is considered a pest of ornamental birch varieties.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Monaphis [Calaphidini]

Identification: Very large aphids with a body length of 3.3 - 4.3 mm. All adult viviparae are winged. They are robust, ventrally flattened, green aphids with very long thick black antennae and a conspicuous elongate dark pterostigma in the forewing.

There is only one species in this genus which lives solitarily on birch ( Betula spp.) in Europe and much of Asia; also recorded from the USA. It has a sexual stage in is life cycle, but does not host alternate and is not attended by ants.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Symydobius [Calaphidini]

Identification: Medium to large, rather shiny dark brown aphids. Both winged and wingless adult viviparous females occur. Siphunculi (when present) are small and truncate. Antennae are dark or with the basal half of the 4th and 5th segments conspicuously paler. Alates (shown here) have the wing veins brownish bordered and usually have broad dark transverse bands on each tergite. Males are wingless, and oviparae have the posterior abdominal segments extended into an ovipositor-like structure.

Seven species forming colonies on the branches and twigs of birch and alder (Betulaceae). They have a sexual stage in their life cycle, but do not host alternate. They are always attended by ants.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Chromaphis [Panaphidini]

Identification: Small pale yellow aphids with all viviparae winged. The antennae are short and there are small pairs of spinal spots on abdominal tergites 4-5. The siphunculi are truncate conical and flanged.

There are just 2 species in this genus feeding on the undersides of Walnut (Juglans spp.) leaves. They have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but do not host alternate and are not attended by ants.

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Genus Eucallipterus [Panaphidini]

Identification: Rather small aphids with all viviparae winged. They are active, delicate aphids with long thin legs. The antennae are about as long as the body and they have truncate siphunculi, a knobbed cauda and a deeply cleft anal plate. The dark spots on the wings are conspicuous.

Possibly three species worldwide feeding on the undersides of leaves of lime (Tilia spp.). They have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but do not host alternate and are not attended by ants.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Hoplocallis [Panaphidini]

Identification: Hoplocallis are small aphids related to Myzocallis All adult viviparae are winged. Unlike Myzocallis aphids the antennal terminal process is always shorter than the base of the sixth antennal segment. Also the head and prothorax have a median longitudinal pale stripe extending backward from the median ocellus between bands of pigment. The pronotum has anterior and posterior spinal and marginal clusters of small hairs. The abdomen has paired dark spinal sclerites that are fused posteriorly across midline on some or all of the tergites.

There are four Hoplocallis species in Europe and Asia, which all feed on oak (Quercus).

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Myzocallis [Panaphidini]

Identification: Small, delicate, usually yellowish aphids with a knobbed cauda and bilobed anal plate, Immatures usually have long, capitate dorsal hairs. Adult viviparae are all winged, except in a few species. The forewings are variably pigmented, but there is generally at least a dark spot at the base of the pterostigma.

About 40 species living on oaks and chestnuts (Fagaceae). They have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but do not host alternate and are not attended by ants.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Panaphis [Panaphidini]

Identification: These are large distinctive aphids with short antennae only about 0.3-0.4 times the body length. All viviparous females are winged. The wings have the veins dark bordered with dark spots near the wing margin. The abdomen has dark marginal sclerites, broad dark bands across tergites 3-7, broken ones across tergites l - 2 and a small trapezoid sclerite on tergite 8. The siphunculi are short, truncate and without a flange. The cauda has an elongate oval knob.

There are 3 described species all living on walnut (Juglandaceae). They typically feed along the midrib of the upper surface of the leaves. They are closely related and could perhaps be geographic variants of a single species. They have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but do not host alternate and are not attended by ants. They can be a serious pest on walnuts

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Pterocallis [Panaphidini]

Identification: Small pale aphids. The antennae are usually somewhat shorter than the body with a short terminal process. The siphunculi are short and truncated and the cauda is knobbed. Apterous viviparae occur more commonly than in most Calaphidinae.

A genus of thirteen species associated especially with alder (Alnus and hazel (Corylus) in the Betulaceae. They have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but do not host alternate. They are usually dispersed on the undersides of leaves, and are mostly not attended by ants.

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Genus Takecallis [Panaphidini]

Identification: Small delicate narrow-bodied aphids with a knobbed cauda. The clypeus bears a forward directed tubercle, and the ratio of the terminal process of the last antennal segment to its base is about 1. Usually all viviparae are alate.

Five species on bamboo (Bambuseae). The genus is oriental in origin, but several species are now widely distributed.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Tinocallis [Panaphidini]

Identification: Mostly small species. All viviparae are winged and usually have paired spinal and marginal tubercular processes. Some species have conspicuous black markings on dorsal body and/or forewings. The antennae are as long as or shorter than the body. The siphunculi are stump shaped and the cauda is knobbed.

There are about 18 species usually associated with elms (Ulmaceae), although species have also been described from Lythraceae and other families. They have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but do not host alternate and are not attended by ants.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Tuberculatus [Panaphidini]

Identification: Mostly small species (usually body length 1.5 - 2.5 mm). All viviparae and males are winged and have one or more abdominal spinal tubercles. The antennae are as long or longer than the body. The siphunculi are short and truncate and the cauda is knobbed.

There are about 60 species of this genus feeding on oak and chestnut (Fagaceae). Some well-defined subgenera have a limited distribution. They have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but do not host alternate and are not attended by ants.

Species Overview 

   

 

Subfamily Chaitophorinae

Genus Chaitophorus [Chaitophorini]

Identification: Very hairy, small to medium-sized aphids which may be wingless or winged. The dorsal cuticle of the wingless adults is largely sclerotized. The siphunculi are short and stump-shaped, and the cauda is usually knobbed. Winged forms often have dark segmental cross-bands and marginal sclerites.

There are about 90 species with individual species feeding on either poplar or willow species in the Salicaceae. They have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but do not host alternate and may be ant attended.

Species overview: 

   

 

Genus Periphyllus [Chaitophorini]

Identification: Medium-sized to large elongate oval or pear-shaped aphids which may be winged or wingless. The dorsum is mainly membranous (unsclerotized) but there are many small hair-bearing plates. The siphunculi are stump-shaped with a pronounced flange. The cauda at the tip of the abdomen is either rounded or tongue-shaped with a slight constriction. Antennal hairs are usually long and conspicuous.

There are about 42 species of Periphyllus aphids mostly living on maples and sycamore (Acer spp) in the Aceraceae. They have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but do not host alternate. Some species are usually ant-attended. They show seasonal polymorphism to cope with physiological changes in the host with several species having an aestivating nymphal stage which is often flattened and hairy.

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Subfamily Drepanosiphinae

Genus Drepanosiphum [Drepanosiphinae]

Identification: Medium-sized to large elongate long-legged aphids. The antennae are long and the siphunculi are long and tubular All viviparae and males are winged. The oviparae are large and wingless, with the end of the abdomen extended like an ovipositor.

A genus of eight species all living on the leaves of sycamore or maple (Aceraceae). They form spaced-out aggregations on the undersides of leaves in the shade. They have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but do not host-alternate. They are not attended by ants.

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Subfamily Eriosomatinae

Genus Eriosoma [Eriosomatini]

Identification: Both winged and wingless aphids have rather conspicuous siphuncular pores with partially chitinized rims surrounded by a ring of hairs. The forewing of winged individuals usually has only one branch in the medial vein.Most stages are covered in a dense floculent wax.

There are about 35 species most of which host alternate between galls on elm (Ulmaceae) and secondary hosts such as apple (Rosaceae) and currants (Grossulariaceae). They have a sexual stage in the life cycle. They are not attended by ants.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Tetraneura [Eriosomatini]

Identification: Small aphids. Wingless forms have one-segmented tarsi and the winged forms have a simple, unbranched medial vein in the forewing. Wax gland plates may be present or absent.

About 30 species of which at least seven species host alternate between leaf galls on elm (Ulmaceae) and roots of grasses (Poaceae). They have a sexual stage in the life cycle. The fundatrices induce stalked, pouch-like red, yellow or green galls on the upper sides of leaves. They are not attended by ants.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Aploneura [Fordini]

Identification: Aploneura are medium sized aphids. The apterae have very short 4- or 5-segmented antennae. Unlike most root aphids, Aploneura produce copious white wax and probably because of this are not attended by ants. The alatae have very short 6-segmented antennae, the third and fourth segments of which each bear bear a single large secondary rhinaria on the distal half. The wings of the alate are held flat against the abdomen when at rest.

There are only three species in the genus Aploneura. They host alternate betweeen galls on Pistacia and the roots of grasses and vines.

Species Overview 

   

 

Genus Forda [Fordini]

Identification: These are medium-sized aphids. On the primary host they live in galls. The fundatrix initially forms a small temporary gall near the apex of the leaf, but her offspring move to the leaf margin where they form characteristic leaf-edge galls by folding and rolling the leaf margins. Emigrant alates have a dark head and thorax and a pale body. Apterae on the secondary host are often yellowish-white and plump-bodied and are not waxy.

About 10 species host alternating (in the Mediterranean region and south-west Asia) from pistacchio (Pistacia) to the roots of grasses and cereals. Outside the range of Pistacia, several species are known only from their secondary hosts. They are attended by ants on the secondary host and often live in ants' nests.

Species Overview 

   

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Genus Pachypappa [Pemphigini]

Identification: Pachypappa are medium-sized aphids with large fundatrices. The fundatrices have no wax glands. The alate spring migrants have forewings with a once-branched medial vein.

About 13 species which host alternate between Populus (poplar) species and the roots of Picea (spruce).

Species overview: 

   

Guest images copyright Volker Fäßler,  all rights reserved

 

Genus Pemphigus [Pemphigini]

Identification: Small to medium-sized aphids which form galls on poplar. The fundatrix in the gall is covered with wax (removed from the one in the picture to show features). The winged viviparae that emerge from these galls have a black head and pterothorax and a rather elongate greenish wax-dusted abdomen.

There are about 70 species most of which host alternate and have a sexual stage in the life cycle. The primary host is poplar (Populus: Salicaceae) where it induces a gall the leaves and twigs. The secondary host is a herbaceous plant where they form colonies on the roots or in a woolly wax mass above soil level. They are not attended by ants.

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Genus Thecabius [Pemphigini]

Identification: Small to medium-sized aphids (alate body length usually 2 - 3 mm) which have short antennae and siphuncular pores. Dorsal wax gland plates are present on all segments producing a dense covering of wax spicules.

About 17 species most of which host alternate and have a sexual stage in the life cycle. The primary host is poplar (Populus: Salicaceae) where it induces a gall on the leaves, petioles or branches. The secondary host is the roots or stems of plants such as buttercups (Ranunculus: Ranunculaceae) and Lysimachia (Myrsinaceae). They are not attended by ants.

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Subfamily Hormaphidinae

Genus Hamamelistes [Hormaphidini]

Identification: Small wax-covered aphids living in a gall or pseudogall on the under or upper side of the leaf. The first picture (right) shows the aphid as it appears in life. The second picture (far right) is of a specimen in alcohol showing the very short 3- or 4-segmented antennae of apterae and the absence of siphunculi. Alates are distinguished by two oblique veins in the hind wing, and siphuncular pores.

A genus of five species in North America and east Asia. Most species host alternate between witch hazel (Hamamelis) and birch (Betula spp.), whilst others remain all year on birch. This variation may occur geographically within a species. The life cycle of host alternating species takes two years with the sexual stage on witch hazel.

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Subfamily Lachninae

Genus Cinara [Eulachnini]

Identification: Aphids are usually large (apterae up to 5-6 mm in length), and may be winged or wingless. They are frequently wax-powdered and densely haired. The antennae are shorter than half the body length. The rostrum is relatively long reaching to behind the hind coxae. The apical part of the rostrum is slender, pointed and very long, 2-5 times as long as its basal width and is made up of two segments termed RIV and RV. The abdominal dorsum has 6 or more longitudinal rows of small, dark brown intersegmental muscle sclerites. The siphunculi are pore-like and located on broad, often pigmented, hairy cones. The cauda is always broader than long, either rounded or triangular. Males may be wingless or winged depending on species, and oviparae often differ from viviparae in the presence of a perianal ring of wax.

This is a very large genus sometimes assigned to its own subfamily, with species on conifers of the families Pinaceae and Cupressaceae. Many of the species (150) are native to North America, but there are also 55 species found in Europe and Asia. Cinara aphids do not host alternate, but remain on their chosen host species throughout the year. They may feed on the roots, branches, or foliage, and are often attended by ants.

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Genus Essigella [Eulachnini]

Identification: These are long-bodied aphids, similar to Eulachnus, but smaller and with 5-segmented antennae. The apterae are spindle-shaped, with a tapered abdomen, but the "spindle" is truncated at the head end, which is relatively broad. The claws have modified apices, being bifurcate or double. The abdominal tergites are lightly to heavily sclerotized but not necessarily pigmented.

About 14 North American species, all living on pine (Pinus) needles except for one species on Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga). They are often overlooked, as they feed near the bases of the need and move quickly when disturbed. Some have now been recorded as invasive species in Europe.

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Genus Eulachnus [Eulachnini]

Identification: Small, narrow and elongate greenish to olive brown aphids with long limbs. The siphunculi are slightly elevated, rim-like structures, barely visible in this image of an adult apterous Eulachnus. Antennae are 6-jointed.

This genus comprises about 17 species all of which live on the needles of pine (Pinaceae spp.). They are cryptic when feeding, but very active when disturbed. The best-known species show preferences for certain Pinus spp., but none is strictly confined to one species. They have a sexual stage in the life cycle but do not host alternate and are not attended by ants.

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Genus Schizolachnus [Eulachnini]

Identification: Rather small oval-bodied, hairy aphids which may be winged or wingless. The body is grey-green and usually covered with a dense coat of flocculent wax The siphuncular cones are small and pale.

This genus includes seven species (four nearctic and three palaearctic) all of which feed on the needles of pine (Pinus). They are found as small densely packed colonies along a needle. Despite the rather different appearance of the aphids, it appears that Schizolachnus is closely related to Eulachnus. They have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but do not host alternate and are not attended by ants.

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Genus Lachnus [Lachnini]

Identification: Medium to large brown or black long-legged aphids which may be winged or wingless. They usually have prominent siphuncular cones. The cauda and anal plate are rounded. Winged forms have more than half the area of the forewings pigmented and the wings are relatively small, compared with the large body.

This genus includes about 22 species which mainly feed on the twigs and branches of broadleaved trees especially oaks, chestnuts and beeches (Fagaceae). They have a sexual stage in the life cycle but do not host alternate and are nearly always attended by ants.

Species overview: 

  

 

Genus Maculolachnus [Lachnini]

Identification: Medium-sized aphids, the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. They have no distinct pattern of pigmentation on the forewings but have a black spot at the base of the pterostigma. Dorsal hairs are often placed on dark scleroites. The siphuncular cones are low, hairy and conical.

Three species feeding on members of the rose family (Rosaceae). They have a sexual stage in the life cycle overwintering as eggs, but there is no host alternation. They are attended by ants.

Species overview: 

  

 

Genus Tuberolachnus [Lachnini]

Identification: Large aphids which may be winged or wingless. They have a single large tubercle on the back of the fourth abdominal tergite (just in front of the siphunculi). Siphunculi on large dark cones. Antennae about half the body length.

A small genus with only three species of aphids, two of which are only found in the Far East (subgenus Tuberolachniella). The remaining species, Tuberolachnus salignus is cosmopolitan, and feeds on willows (Salicaceae). It does not host alternate and does not appear to have a sexual stage in the life cycle. It may be ant attended.

Species overview: 

   

 

Genus Protrama [Tramini]

Identification: Protrama are medium to large aphids. The apterae are normally alatiform, with dark dorsal cross bands and dark siphuncular cones. The eyes are large and the antennae are about half the body length. The hind tarsus is 0.5-0.9 times as long as the hind tibia. Siphuncular cones are present and are low and hairy. The cauda is rounded.

Protrama feed on underground parts of members of the daisy family, Asteraceae, (especially thistles and wormwoods), or of members of the buttercup family, Ranunculaceae. Amongst the Lachnini, members of the genera Protrama, Neotrama and Trama  are the only ones that do not live on trees as their only host.

Species overview: 

   

 

Genus Trama [Tramini]

Identification: Trama are medium to large aphids. They are whitish and densely hairy, with small compound eyes. The antennae are about 0.5 times the body length, with the antennal terminal process less than 0.25 times the base of antennal segment 6. The hind tarsus is 0.60-0.92 times the length of the hind tibia. Trama aphids have neither siphunculi nor siphuncular pores and the cauda is rounded.

There are 14 Trama species worldwide, mostly living on the roots of Asteraceae where they are attended by ants.

Species overview: 

   

 

Subfamily Phyllaphidinae

Genus Phyllaphis [Phyllaphini]

Identification: Medium sized (usually 2.0-3.2 mm in length) elongate oval, pale yellowish green aphids, covered with wax wool. Wax is produced from well-developed dorsal wax glands. Antennae are shorter than the body and have a very short antennal PT . The siphunculi are pore-like. Winged forms have the abdomen wax-covered, with variably-developed dark dorsal cross-bars.

A genus of 2 or 3 species on the leaves of beech (Fagus: Fagaceae). They have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but do not host alternate and are not attended by ants.

Species overview: 

   

 

Subfamily Mindarinae

Genus Mindarus [Mindarini]

Identification: Wingless forms have a fused head and pronotum and well well-developed wax glands which produce a covering of wax wool. The antennae are short. The siphunculi are pore-like and the cauda is bluntly triangular. Winged forms have forewings with an elongate pterostigma, tapering to a point at the wing apex. Oviparae and males are wingless and reduced in size.

There are 8 or more species worldwide feeding on the growing tips and young cones of spruces or firs. They have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but there is no host alternation and aphids are not attended by ants.

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Subfamily Pterocommatinae

Genus Pterocomma [Pterocommatini]

Identification: Brownish, grey or green with white, yellow or red siphunculi. The body is wax powdered, especially along segment borders, and is densely hairy. The antennae and legs are similarly hairy. The antennae are about half as long as body. The siphunculi are longer than wide, cylindrical or swollen with a more or less distinct flange.

About 30 species of robust, hairy aphids living on willows (Salicaceae) in the northern hemisphere. They have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but do not host alternate. Their colonies on the bark of branches and twigs are almost always attended by ants

Species overview: 

   

 

Subfamily Thelaxinae

Genus Glyphina [Thelaxini]

Identification: Rather small aphids (body length about 2 mm). The dorsum is pigmented usually greenish or blackish with many conspicuous hairs. The antennae are very short. The siphunculi are present as pores on small cones.

There are 5 species which feed on Alder (Alnus) or birch (Betula). The 3 palaearctic species feed on aerial shoots, whereas the two North American species apparently feed underground. They have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but do not host alternate. They are usually attended by ants.

Species overview: 

   

 

Genus Thelaxes [Thelaxini]

Identification: The wingless viviparae are small (1 - 2.3 mm) oval and brown or greenish, sometimes with a paler stripe along the back. The rostrum is distinctive in having a long and almost needle-like last rostral segment. The cauda is knobbed and the siphunculi are very short and virtually pore-like.

There are 4 species which feed on the young shoots, leaves and young acorns of various oak species (Quercus: Fagaceae). Three are in Europe and the Mediterranean region, and one in North America. They have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but do not host alternate. They are usually attended by ants.

Species overview: 

   

Family Adelgidae

 

Genus Adelges [Adelgini]

Identification: Distinguished by having five pairs of abdominal spiracles, whereas members of the other genus of Adelgidae, Pineus, have only four distinct pairs. They are often identified from the shape of the galls on the primary host (wspruce) which are cone-like, often resembling miniature pineapples. Forms on the secondary host often produce abundant wax.

About 30 species worldwide. The primary host of species with a sexual stage in their life cycle is spruce (Picea), and the secondary hosts are fir (Abies), larch (Larix) and other conifers (but not pine). The complete life cycle of these species takes two years. Several species have lost sexual reproduction and host alternation, and instead live all year on spruce or the (original) secondary host.

Species overview: 

   

 

Genus Pineus [Adelgini]

Identification: Distinguished by having only four distinct pairs of abdominal spiracles. Wingless adults on secondary hosts are pear-shaped or globular and have a fused and pigmented head and prothoracic shield. They generally secrete white wax-wool.

About 23 species through Europe, Asia and North America. The primary host of species with a sexual stage in their life cycle species is spruce (Picea), and the secondary host is pine ( Pinus). The galls on spruce are usually on the shoot tips and are less compact than those of Adelges. Several species have lost sexual reproduction and host alternation, and instead live all year on spruce or pine.

Species overview: 

   

Acknowledgements

We have mostly made identifications from high resolution photos of living specimens, along with host plant identity. Microscopic examination of preserved specimens was used for confirmation if necessary. We have used the keys and species accounts of Blackman & Eastop (1994)  and Blackman & Eastop (2006)  supplemented with Stroyan (1977),  Stroyan (1984),  Heie (1980-1995),  and Dixon & Thieme (2007).  We fully acknowledge these authors as the source for the (summarized) taxonomic information we have presented. Any errors in identification or information are ours alone, and we would be very grateful for any corrections. For assistance on the terms used for aphid morphology we suggest the figure  provided by Blackman & Eastop (2006).

Useful weblinks 

References

  •  Blackman, R.L. (1974). Aphids. Invertebrate Types. Ginn & Company Limited (London and Aylesbury).

  •  Blackman, R.L. (2010). Aphids - Aphidinae (Macrosiphini). Handbooks for the identification of British insects 2 (7). Royal Entomological Society, London.

  •  Blackman, R.L. & Eastop, V.F. (1984). Aphids on the world's crops: an identification guide. J. Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK.

  •  Blackman, R.L. & Eastop, V.F. (1994). Aphids on the world's trees: an identification and information guide. CAB International. Full text 

  •  Blackman, R. L. & Eastop, V.F. (2006). Aphids on the world's herbaceous plants and shrubs. Vols 1 & 2. J. Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK. Full text 

  •  Dixon, A.F.G. & Thieme, T. (2007). Aphids on deciduous trees. Naturalist's Handbooks 29. Richmond

  •  Heie, O.E. (1980-1995). The Aphidoidea, Hemiptera, of Fennoscandia and Denmark. (Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica) E.J. Brill, London

  •  Stroyan, H.L.G. (1977). Homoptera: Aphidoidea (Part) - Chaitophoridae and Callaphidae. Handbooks for the identification of British insects 2 (4a). Royal Entomological Society, London. Full text 

  •  Stroyan, H.L.G. (1984). Aphids - Pterocommatinae and Aphidinae (Aphidini). Handbooks for the identification of British insects 2 (6). Royal Entomological Society, London.