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Identification & Distribution:

The aptera of Aphis hederae is dark brown although immatures are paler. They are usually not pulverulent, although the immatures here appear to have a wax 'bloom'. The abdominal sclerotic pattern is mostly confined to a band on abdominal tergites 6-8. The body length of apterae is 1.4-2.5 mm. The alate (shown here) has strong transverse dark bands on most tergites.

 

The ivy aphid does not host alternate. It feeds on ivy (Hedera helix) living on the young shoots and foliage (Stroyan, 1984 ) . It can also be found on various house plants in the Araliaceae such a Fatsia and Schefflera. Sexual forms occur in autumn with apterous or alate males. It occurs throughout Europe, the Middle East and parts of Asia. It is also recorded from North America, South Africa and New Zealand.

 

Biology & Ecology:

Aphis hederae is common and widespread in Europe on ivy growing on old walls and on trees.

It can also be a pest on various house plants as shown below on an octopus tree (Schefflera umbellifera).

Aphis hederae is facultatively attended by ants, in our experience most commonly by Lasius species.

 

The only predator we have encountered is a predatory mite - possibly an Anystis sp.. The apparent scarcity of aphid-specific predators may result from the toxicity of some members of the Araliaceae (Maharaj et al., 2008 ). In addition the presence of generalized predators may disrupt biological control by other more specific natural enemies (Messelink et al., 2011 ). Aphis hederae is parasitized by several species of braconid parasitoids such Binodoxys acalephae, Binodoxys angelicae and Lysiphlebus confusus (Kavallieratos et al., 2004 ), but we have yet to find any mummies.

Parthenogenetic reproduction may continue through the winter in mild spots, but normally sexuales appear in the autumn as shown below.

These are oviparae found at the end of September.

Acknowledgements

We have made provisional identifications from high resolution photos of living specimens, along with host plant identity. In the great majority of cases, identifications have been confirmed by microscopic examination of preserved specimens. We have used the keys and species accounts of Blackman & Eastop (1994)  and Blackman & Eastop (2006)  supplemented with Blackman (1974) , Stroyan (1977) , Stroyan (1984) , Blackman & Eastop (1984) , Heie (1980-1995) , Dixon & Thieme (2007)  and Blackman (2010) . We fully acknowledge these authors as the source for the (summarized) taxonomic information we have presented. Any errors in identification or information are ours alone, and we would be very grateful for any corrections. For assistance on the terms used for aphid morphology we suggest the figure  provided by Blackman & Eastop (2006).

Useful weblinks 

References

  •  Kavallieratos et al. (2004). A survey of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) of Southeastern Europe and their aphid-plant associations. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 39 (3), 527-563.Full text 

  •  Maharaj, R. et al. (2008). Bio-evaluation of South African plants for insecticidal properties. Conference Poster. CSIR.Full text 

  •  Messelink, G.J. et al (2011). Hyperpredation by generalist predatory mites disrupts biological control of aphids by the aphidophagous gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza. Biological Control 57 (3), 246-252.Abstract 

  •  Stroyan, H.L.G. (1984). Aphids - Pterocommatinae and Aphidinae (Aphidini). Handbooks for the identification of British insects. 2 (6) Royal Entomological Society of London.