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Aphis salicariae

Dogwood - rosebay willowherb aphid

On this page: Identification & Distribution  Biology & Ecology 

Identification & Distribution:

Aphis salicariae apterae are reddish brown with a marked wax bloom making the aphids appear grey or pinkish (see two pictures below). The dorsal abdominal sclerotic pattern comprises variably complete transverse bands across tergites 6-8 and several other small sclerites. The siphunculi are gently to rather strongly curved outwards, and the cauda is short and bluntly tapering. The body length of Aphis salicariae apterae is 1.8-2.3 mm.

The alate (see picture below) is much less heavily waxed than the aptera.

The images below are micrographs of an aptera (first) and an alate (second) in alcohol. The mid-dorsum of the Aphis salicariae aptera is more or less membranous but there are small postsiphuncular and marginal sclerites, dark intersegmental muscle sclerites and transverse bands across tergites 6-8. The alate has a better developed pattern with larger marginals and postsiphunculars and short median sclerites on most of the tergites. Note especially the pronounced curvature of the siphunculi on both the aptera and alate.

The primary host of the dogwood - rosebay willowherb aphid host is the red-barked dogwood (Cornus alba) where the aphid causes leaf curl and feeds in developing flower umbels. The secondary host is rosebay willowherb (Chamerion (=Epilobium) angustifolium) where the aphid lives in colonies along the midribs of the underside of the leaves. Sexual forms occur in autumn. Aphis salicariae is widely distributed through Europe into north-west and central Asia, and has been introduced to and is widepread in North America.

 

Biology & Ecology:

Aphis salicariae can be very common in UK on its summer host, rosebay willowherb, resulting in extensive premature sensecence of the plants.

Stroyan (1984)  notes that the aphid is locally common in UK wherever its non-indigenous primary host Cornus alba is found.

On its secondary host the aphid is often ant attended as shown in the picture below where southern wood ants are tending a large colony.

Ant attendance has been studied in depth in the USA where Addicott (1979) looked at a multispecies ant aphid association on "fireweed", as rosebay willowherb is known there. In that situation neither the growth of populations nor their persistence was affected by the presence of ants, although other aphid species were affected.

Jaskiewicz (2003)  studied the phenology of Aphis salicariae (along with Anoecia corni ) on its primary host Cornus alba in Poland over three years. Anoecia corni was the dominant species in all three years making up 86% to 100% of total aphid numbers. Aphis salicariae was only observed in spring and in only two of the three years. No indication is given that the species was ant attended.

We have only found the species once on its primary host - a small group of oviparae in mid-September shown in the picture below.

Note especially the swollen hind tibia on the ovipara - each bears between 150 and 200 scent plaques which produce a sex pheromone attractive to males.

Acknowledgements

We have made provisional identifications from high resolution photos of living specimens, along with host plant identity. In the great majority of cases, identifications have been confirmed by microscopic examination of preserved specimens. We have used the keys and species accounts of Blackman & Eastop (1994)  and Blackman & Eastop (2006)  supplemented with Blackman (1974) , Stroyan (1977) , Stroyan (1984) , Blackman & Eastop (1984) , Heie (1980-1995) , Dixon & Thieme (2007)  and Blackman (2010) . We fully acknowledge these authors as the source for the (summarized) taxonomic information we have presented. Any errors in identification or information are ours alone, and we would be very grateful for any corrections. For assistance on the terms used for aphid morphology we suggest the figure  provided by Blackman & Eastop (2006).

Useful weblinks 

References

  •  Addicott,J.F. (1979). A multipescies aphid-ant association: density dependence and species-specific effects. Canadian Journal of Zoology 57(3), 558-569. Abstract 

  •  Jaskiewicz, B. (2003). Occurence of aphids on Cornus alba L. Hortorum Cultu 2(1), 95-110. Abstract 

  •  Stroyan, H.L.G. (1984). Aphids - Pterocommatinae and Aphidinae (Aphidini). Handbooks for the identification of British insects. 2(6) Royal Entomological Society of London.