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Genus Cinara [Eulachnini]

Identification: Cinara aphids are usually large (apterae up to 5-6 mm in length), and may be winged or wingless. They are frequently wax-powdered and densely haired. The antennae are shorter than half the body length. The rostrum is relatively long reaching to behind the hind coxae. The apical part of the rostrum is slender, pointed and very long, 2-5 times as long as its basal width and is made up of two segments termed RIV and RV. The abdominal dorsum has 6 or more longitudinal rows of small, dark brown intersegmental muscle sclerites. The siphunculi are pore-like and located on broad, often pigmented, hairy cones. The cauda is always broader than long, either rounded or triangular. Males may be wingless or winged depending on species, and oviparae often differ from viviparae in the presence of a perianal ring of wax.

Cinara is a very large genus sometimes assigned to its own subfamily, with species on conifers of the families Pinaceae and Cupressaceae. Many Cinara species (150) are native to North America, but there are also 55 species found in Europe and Asia. Cinara aphids do not host alternate, but remain on their chosen host species throughout the year. They may feed on the roots, branches, or foliage, and are often attended by ants. Go to the 'read more' pages for more pictures and descriptions of other forms, plus ant attendance and natural enemies.

 

Cinara acutirostris (Corsican pine aphid)

Identification: Cinara acutirostris apterae are dark brown to pale bronze, with a pattern of dark markings and wax dust. The siphuncular cones are large, prominent and black. The body length is 2.6-3.6 mm.

 

The first image above shows an adult aptera Cinara acutirostris on a branch of Corsican pine in amongst the attendant ants. It has signs of the characteristic bronzy iridescence of the adult. The second image shows two alates (winged forms) of Cinara acutirostris. The alates are similar to the apterae, but have predominantly dark legs with pale areas closest to the body. The appearance of the species is very similar to Cinara pini  and in the past we provisionally assigned those found on Corsican Pine to Cinara acutirostris, and those found on Scots Pine to Cinara pini. Our recent microscopic examinations suggest this was justified. Key identification features to distinguish Cinara acutirostris from Cinara pini are 1) the length of the first tarsal segment is 0.5 times or more the length of the second tarsal segment; 2) the combined length of the last two rostral segments (RIV+V) is 1.2 to 1.5 times the length of the second tarsal segment and 3) there are several rather long hairs up to 110 µm long between the siphuncular cones of Cinara acutirostris, whilst the longest on Cinara pini are only about 48 µm.

Cinara acutirostris is found on twigs of Corsican Pine (Pinus nigra) and Stone Pine (Pinus pinea). Oviparae and males can be found in October, and the species overwinters as eggs laid on the needles. It is found in western, southern and central Europe, China, and introduced to Argentina. It is commonly classed as an invasive species because of its introduction to countries along with Corsican Pine.

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Cinara brauni (Corsican pine shoot aphid)

Identification: Cinara brauni apterae (see first picture below) are golden brown with a thick dusting of white wax powder which contrasts with an extensive shiny sclerotized dark patch on abdominal tergites 5-7 encompassing the siphunculi. Cinara brauni is a polymorphic species with regard to extension and general aspect of the sclerotization of the abdominal tergites 5-7 throughout the year. The body length of the Cinara brauni aptera is 2.7-3.8 mm.

 

The alate vivipara (see second picture above) has the posterior sclerotization reduced so the siphuncular cones are separated and large.

It is found on current years growth and one-year-old twigs of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra). The egg-laying forms (oviparae) differ from viviparae in the presence of a pericaudal ring of wax and occur in autumn along with alate males. Formerly considered rare in both Europe and the UK (Carter & Maslen (1982) ), Cinara brauni has been (accidentally) introduced into several countries through importation of Corsican pines, and is now considered an invasive species. It is frequent in southern Britain.

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Cinara confinis (Black-stem aphid)

Identification: Cinara confinis apterae are dark brown or greenish-black, with a double row of blackish slightly shining speckles and small flecks of fine wax in transverse rows. The head and thoracic plates are dark brown. The antennae are pale yellowish-grey with a darkening of each segment distally. The length of the sclerotized part of the stylet groove is greater than 1.8 mm. The length of the fifth antennal segment, including the terminal process, is clearly longer than the fourth antennal segment. Cinara confinis tarsi are black. The tibia and femora either have dark brown annulations or are mainly black. The siphuncular cones are dark and prominent. The body length is 3.8-7.8 mm.

 

Cinara confinis feeds on the stems and twigs (rarely on the roots) of various fir (Abies) and cedar (Cedrus) species. It has a holarctic distribution and is recorded from Europe, much of Asia, North America (formerly known as Cinara grossa) and Argentina. Carter & Maslen (1982)  describe it as of sporadic occurrence in Britain occurring in northern Scotland, west of Ireland and southern England.

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Cinara costata (Mealy spruce aphid)

Identification: Apterae are wax-covered, light brown or yellow-brown, sometimes with a dull metallic golden sheen, and with a pair of wax-covered dark bottle-green dorsal longitudinal stripes which sometimes coalesce at about the level of the siphunculi. The prominent siphuncular cones are dark brown and usually spaced three or more diameters apart. The body length is 2.7-3.8 mm. The alatae have characteristically pigmented forewings with the media vein only once-branched.

We are awaiting an image of this species...

It forms small colonies on smaller woody twigs on lower branches of Spruces (Picea spp.). The twigs also receive a deposit of mealy wax and the aphids are not usually attended by ants. Oviparae and males occur in the northern hemisphere in October. It occurs in Europe, east Asia, Australia, Greenland, Canada and USA.

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Cinara cuneomaculata (Brown larch aphid)

Identification: Apterae and alatae are darkish brown to orange-reddish, sometimes with dark green segmental markings. There is usually a dusting of greyish wax powder on the ventral surface of adults which may extend as stripes on to the dorsum of the abdomen. The siphuncular cones are small. The legs have the hind tibiae dark for up to two thirds their length; the femora are mostly dark brown but paler proximally. The body length is 2.4-4.6 mm.

 

The first image above shows an dark brown adult aptera on larch in July. Note the small siphuncular cones often surrounded by rather pale cuticle, and the lack of hair-bearing sclerites on abdominal tergites 2-6 (the latter distinguishes the species from Cinara laricis which occurs commonly on larch). The second image shows a more orange-brown aptera in October. Key distinguishing characteristics for this species are that the fourth rostral segment is from 0.15 to 0.25 mm in length, and that the fourth antennal segment is clearly longer than the sixth including the terminal process.

They feed on young twigs and shoots of larch (Larix spp.). The egg laying females (oviparae) occur in October. They are found in Europe excluding Scandinavia and the Iberian peninsula; also in parts of Asia.

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Cinara cupressi (Cypress aphid)

Identification: Cinara cupressi apterae are mainly orange brown to yellowish brown, with a blackish markings diverging back from the thorax. In life the dorsum is dusted with pale grey wax making a pattern of rather interrupted cross-bands. The whole aphid is clothed with fine hairs. There is also a rather indistinct blackish band between the black siphuncular cones. The distal parts of the femora and the bases of the tibiae are dusky or dark. The body length of Cinara cupressi apterae is 1.8-3.9 mm. The alate is similar in appearance to the apterous viviparae.

 

A key identification feature of Cinara cupressi is that the distal parts of the femora are dusky. This distinguishes the species from Cinara tujafilina which also occurs on cypress. Also there are only 4-6 hairs on the basal half of antennal segment six. This distinguishes the species from Cinara fresai which has 7-12 hairs in this position.

Cinara cupressi is found most commonly on cypress (Cupressus spp.) but also occurs on Thuja, Juniperus, Chamaecyparis and Widdringtonia. Oviparae and alate males occur in October in Europe. The cypress aphid is considered to be one of the world's 100 worst invasive alien species according to the criteria used by the international Union for the Conservation of Nature. It occurs in Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas.

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Cinara curvipes (Bow-legged fir aphid)

Identification: The apterae are shiny or dull grey-black sometimes developing a covering of pale grey wax especially on the thorax and along each side of the dorsum. The abdomen usually has a broad sclerotized cross band on VIII. The siphuncular cones are black. The coxae are dark brown to black. The hind tibiae are mainly dark but with a pale section at the base; they are long and curved giving the English name bow-legged fir aphid. The body length is 3.4 - 5.5 mm.

 

Cinara curvipes occurs on the trunk or branches of fir (Abies spp.) and cedar (Cedrus deodora). Oviparae and alate males occur in September-October. It is widely distributed in North America. It was first recorded in the UK in the 1990s, and is now considered an invasive species in Europe.

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Cinara hottesi (Blue-black spruce aphid)

Identification: The apterae of Cinara hottesi (shown below) are dull bluish-black in life. The dull black of the body is in sharp contrast to the mainly yellowish-orange appendages. There is no wax deposit on the body. The siphuncular cones are pigmented and much darker than the rest of the cuticle. The body length of is 3.0-3.5 mm.

 

Images copyright Stephen McKechnie, all rights reserved.

Identification of Cinara hottesi can be confirmed microscopically using the following characters. The hairs on the outer side of the hind tibia are quite long (up to 0.12 mm) and markedly longer than the width of the hind tibia at midpoint (see the second image below). The second hind tarsal segment is about 0.28 mm. The last two rostral segments (RIV+V) are 0.24 to 0.36 mm in length. The third antennal segment has no secondary rhinaria. The hind tibia is quite long at about 1.80-1.85 mm.

Cinara hottesi feeds on several species of spruce, especially white spruce (Picea glauca) and black spruce (Picea mariana). It is a good example of species that form large colonies (see second picture above). Oviparae and apterous males occur in September-October in Colorado. The species is widespread in North America, but has not yet been recorded in Europe.

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Cinara juniperi (Juniper aphid)

Identification: Cinara juniperi apterae are rather more rounded in profile than most species. They are pinkish-brown with fairly uniform wax dusting not forming a pattern (cf. Cinara mordvilko where the posterior is wax free).

Antennal segment V is less than 0.9 times the length of segment VI (cf. Cinara mordvilkoi which has antennal segment V 0.85-1.05 times the length of segment VI ). The ratio of the length of the last two segments of the rostrum to the length of the second segment of the hind tarsus is 0.60 to 0.85. The hairs along the outer side of the hind tibia are at least 1.5 times (mostly 2 to 3 times) the diameter of the tibia in the middle. The body length of the Cinara juniperi aptera is 2.1 to 3.4 mm.

 

The alate Cinara juniperi is similar to the aptera but the siphuncular cones are smaller.

Cinara juniperi feeds on Juniperus communis (common juniper) and its varieties. Most records on other hosts are misidentifications of other species. Oviparae and apterous males occur in September-October in Colorado, USA. Elsewhere it is apparently anholocyclic. Cinara juniperi is found throughout Europe, as well as parts of the Middle East, China, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, western USA, and Canada.

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Cinara kochiana (Giant larch aphid)

Identification: Apterae of Cinara kochiana are greyish-brown to lead grey or greyish-green, and are slightly wax powdered. The dorsum shows a distinct dark flecked patterning of scleroites and there is often a spinal stripe. The siphuncular cones are small and black. The legs are hairy and the hind tibiae are uniformly brown/black. The body length is 4.7-6.1 mm.

 

The fourth rostral segment (R IV) is 0.29-0.42 mm long and bears 21-34 hairs arranged in 4 longitudinal rows. The long fourth rostral segment and the four rows of hairs distinguish Cinara kochiana from Cinara cuneomaculata in which R IV is 0.15-0.25 mm long and bears 5-11 hairs arranged in 2 longitudinal rows.

Cinara kochiana is found on various larch species, including Larix decidua. Most reports state it occurs in ant attended colonies in bark crevices on the lower part of the trunk or bases of older branches, or in midsummer on exposed roots. Oviparae and winged or wingless males occur in October-November and eggs laid in bark crevices. Durak (2014)  notes that Cinara kochiana is one of only five out of about 200 Cinara species to have both winged and wingless males.

It has been reported from most parts of Europe except the Spain and Portugal, but is considered rather rare. It occurs as a subspecies in Korea.

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Cinara laricis (Speckled larch aphid)

Identification: Apterae of Cinara laricis are dark greyish-brown to reddish brown, usually with a wax bloom. Abdominal tergites II - VI are speckled with numerous dark sclerites dorsally and the hairs arising from them are conspicuous (thick and spine-like with raised conical bases).

 

The first picture above shows the numerous dark sclerites on the dorsum of an adult aptera on a larch twig. The second picture above shows an alate Cinara laricis along with some immatures. The siphuncular cones are blackish and conspicuous, but the pigmented radius may barely exceed the diameter of the opening. The body length is 3.0-5.1 mm.The ovipara (egg laying female) is similar to the viviparous female and has no pericaudal wax ring. The alate male of Cinara laricis is dark brown with a variable sclerotic pattern.

Cinara laricis are found in small dense colonies on the twigs of the lower branches, or on trunks of young larch trees (Larix spp). The oviparae and alate males occur in October-November. This is one of two common species of Cinara found on larch - the other is Cinara cuneomaculata The speckled larch aphid is found throughout Europe, and is also recorded from the Far East (Mongolia, China, Korea and Japan).

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Cinara maghrebica (Maghreb pine aphid)

Identification: Adult apterae of Cinara maghrebica are chocolate-brown with a dorsal pattern of white dust. The length of the sclerotized part of the stylet groove is 1.0-1.2 mm. The longest hairs of abdominal tergites 3-5 are more than 50 μm. Abdominal tergite 5 has 12-18 long, fine hairs between the siphuncular cones. The longest hairs on the hind tibia are 60-130 μm. Abdominal tergites 7 & 8 usually have a pair of dark patches. The diameter of each siphuncular cone is 0.12-0.40 mm. The body length of adult Cinara maghrebica apterae is 2.0-2.9 mm.

 

Guest images copyright Sandy Rae,  all rights reserved

The Maghreb pine aphid lives often in dense colonies on young twigs of a variety of pine (Pinus) species including the Canary Islands pine (Pinus canariensis), the Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis), the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) and the stone pine (Pinus pinea). It is sometimes attended by ants. Cinara maghrebica is found in the Mediterranean areas of Italy, France, Spain, Morocco and Malta, and has also been recorded from Argentina and possibly Turkey.

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Cinara pectinatae (Green-striped fir aphid)

Identification: Apterae of Cinara pectinatae are large and (usually) shiny bright olive green, with three diffuse paler green longitudinal bands.

 

The abdomen has numerous small spots scattered over the entire dorsum. The head and appendages are brown and the eyes are red. The siphuncular cones are small and pale. The legs are pale and spotted or mottled with brownish. The first hind tarsal segment is at least half as long as the second hind tarsal segment. The body length is 2.8 to 5.0 mm.

Cinara pectinatae feeds on firs (Abies spp.), especially Abies alba (silver fir) but also Abies nephrolepis, numidica, pindrow, sutchuenensis (= Abies fargesii var. sutchuenensis) and veitchii. Oviparae and alate males are found in October. It is not recorded from any North American firs. Cinara pectinatae occurs throughout Europe eastward to Turkey.

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Cinara piceae (Greater black spruce bark aphid)

Identification: Apterae of Cinara piceae are uniformly jet black and are often described as "resembling the texture and shape of old droplets of tar". The anterior portion is more shiny. The spiracular openings are in a series of lateral depressions giving the abdomen a crenated appearance. The siphuncular cones are rather small with the sclerotized area usually no wider than twice the diameter of the rim. The coxae and tarsi are black. The hind femora are reddish brown and black distally. The body length of Cinara piceae is 4.5-6.7 mm.

 

Guest image (above-right), Copyright Ian Dawson, all rights reserved.

The alate (above right) is similar in colouration to aptera. It is characterised by having 11-16 rather large secondary rhinaria on the third antennal segment.

Cinara piceae forms large colonies in spring on the undersides of older branches and on trunks of Spruce (Picea spp.). Numerous alatae are produced in May-June. The oviparae appear in September-October, move to the current year's growth and lay wax-dusted eggs on needles. They often move to ground level or the roots in summer. They are found throughout Europe and in the Far East, and may vary greatly in abundance from year to year.

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Cinara piceicola (Green-striped spruce aphid)

Identification: Apterae of Cinara piceicola have a dark brown head and thorax and pale olive-buff abdomen. In life there are two longitudinal faint greyish-green dorsal stripes and a thin white stripe between them. The dorsum is not wax powdered but the underside of the body is mealy. The siphuncular cones are usually small and rather faintly pigmented. The body length is 2.1-4.2 mm.

 

The abdomen of the aptera (see first picture above) has sclerotized areas on the dorsum consisting of a transverse segmented band on segments I-III and a broad cross band on VIII. A key distinguishing characteristic of Cinara piceicola from most other spruce feeding aphids is that the hairs on the outer side of the hind tibiae are all less than 0.12 mm long. In other species all or many exceed 0.12 mm. The second picture above shows an alate vivipara feeding on spruce. It is similar in appearance to the apterous vivipara. The ovipararous female is rather small (at least compared to the vivipara) and is greyish or orange-brown with a prominent pericaudal wax ring.

Cinara piceicola occurs on spruce (Picea spp.), especially Norway spruce, in colonies on bark of woody shoots between needle-bases in spring. They move to older branches and roots in summer. Numerous alatae are produced in May-June. Oviparae and apterous males occur from July onwards. Cinara piceicola is found in north, west and central Europe, and apparently China.

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Cinara pilicornis (Spruce shoot aphid)

Identification: Apterae of Cinara pilicornis come in two colour forms. The commonest form is a plain orange brown (shown below first), but some are a greyish green. The whole aphid is clothed with numerous fine hairs and is more or less covered with a dense mealy secretion. The legs are yellowish but the distal half of the hind femur is darker. The hind tibiae are pale, or at least paler basally and medially than at apex. Most of hairs on the outer side of the middle section of the hind tibia exceed 0.12 mm in length (this character distinguishes Cinara pilicornis from Cinara piceicola . The second hind tarsal segment is sickle shaped and longer than the maximum diameter of the siphuncular cones (this character distinguishes Cinara pilicornis from Cinara pruinosa ). The siphunculi are small and pale brownish. Their body length is 2.1-4.7 mm.

 

First image copyright Sandy Rae,  all rights reserved.

The Cinara pilicornis alate (see below right) is greyish-brown with transverse waxy bars and little sclerotization. The apterous males are green with an elongate flattened body.

The spruce shoot aphid may be found on many different spruce species including Norwegian spruce (Picea abies) and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). It may also colonise western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla). Cinara pilicornis is found throughout Europe through to China and Japan and it has been introduced to Australia, New Zealand, North and South America.

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Cinara pinea (Large pine aphid)

Identification: Apterae of Cinara pinea are shiny orange-brown early in the year and grey or dark brown later on. The body is finely spotted with black and dusted with wax especially along the dorsal midline and laterally. The patches of wax are especially prominent on the dorsum of the alate. Siphuncular cones are small to medium sized and reddish-brown or dark brown. The body size of the large pine aphid is unusually large at 3.1-5.2 mm.

 

The first picture above shows an adult aptera of Cinara pinea in June. It has the characteristic orange brown colouration of early summer. The second picture shows an alate. It has pronounced wax spots along the centre line of the dorsum, and the size and number of the dorsal scleroites are often reduced.

Cinara pinea are found on young trees and new shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) although sometimes on other pine species including Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) in dry areas. Oviparae and males can be found in October. They are found throughout Europe and much of Asia and have been introduced to North America.

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Cinara pini (Scots pine aphid)

Identification: Apterae of Cinara pini (se first picture below) are grey or greyish-green with black markings, and with either a slight bronze iridescence or a dusting of grey wax. The abdomen is wax powdered along the dorsal midline, along the segmental borders and laterally. The siphuncular cones are black and prominent. The body length is 1.9-3.7 mm (fundatrices larger).

 

One key distingishing feature of Cinara pini is that the length of the first tarsal segment is less than 0.5 times the length of the second tarsal segment (distinguishes from the pine aphids Cinara schimitscheki and Cinara pinea). Also the length of the hairs on the hind tibia is less than 130um & those on the third antennal segment are less than 100um (distinguishes from Cinara pinihabitans). The length of the two terminal segments of the rostrum of Cinara pini is less than 1.2 times the length of the second tarsal segment and the hairs between siphunculi are short (distinguishes from Cinara acutirostris). Lastly the sclerotized part of the stylet groove is 1.2-1.5 mm long and there are only 4 hairs on the antennal terminal process (distinguishes from Cinara nuda).

Immatures are more greenish, have less patterning and have no mealy deposit. The alate viviparous female (see second picture above) has more prominent wax deposits, and is generally more pigmented than the aptera (although not in the specimen below. The oviparous female has no pericaudal wax ring and the male may be alate or apterous.

Cinara pini is found on young shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in spring, and later on the undersides of older foliated twigs or branches. The species overwinters as eggs. The oviparae (egg laying females) and males can be found in October. Cinara pini is found throughout Europe, also in Siberia and Japan, and introduced to North America.

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Cinara pruinosa (Wax-bordered spruce aphid)

Identification: In life, apterae of Cinara pruinosa are dark green or brown, sometimes with a bronze metallic tinge. They are often wax-powdered along the sides of the dorsum and on the underside of the body. Immature forms may or may not be wax powdered. They have prominent black siphuncular cones. The legs and body are conspicuously hairy. The adults of Cinara pruinosa usually have blotchy blackish markings in a pattern resembling the letter omega on tergites 1-3 . There are sometimes further blackish marking between and in front of the siphuncular cones. The two terminal segments of the rostrum are 1.1-1.5 times longer than the second hind tarsal segment.

 

The legs are pale except for the apical one third of the femora, and the bases and distal halves of the tibiae and tarsi. The hairs on the outer side of the hind tibia are quite long, with all or many of them exceeding 0.12 mm and much more than 0.6 times the width of hind tibia at its midpoint. The tibial hairs are pale or dusky usually with unpigmented bases. The second tarsal segment is shorter than the maximum diameter of the siphuncular cones. The body length of the adult aptera is 2.4-5.0 mm. Oviparae are somewhat smaller than the viviparae and have a pericaudal wax ring. Both alate and apterous males have been recorded (the latter possibly in error).

Cinara pruinosa occurs in small colonies on the woody twigs of Spruce (Picea spp.) in spring, but later found at base of trunk and on roots in ant shelters. Oviparae and alate males occur in September-October, but anholocyclic overwintering on roots also occurs. Throughout most of Europe eastward to Turkey, and in North America (where often recorded as palmerae).

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Cinara smolandiae (Giant juniper aphid)

Identification: Apterae of Cinara smolandiae in Sweden are dusky brownish grey with dull bronze metallic highlights in sunlight. The siphuncular cones are shiny black. Immatures have more extensive wax dusting. The body length of Cinara smolandiae is 2.9-4.4 mm. Scottish apterae are somewhat smaller - and have been described as varying from light coffee to chestnut brown with only a (very) light wax dusting on the head and thorax.

 

Cinara smolandiae is in the subgenus Cupressobium, which is characterized by the very short first hind tarsal segment, the unsclerotized rim of the primary rhinarium on the sixth antennal segment, and the relatively few (usually 3) subapical hairs on the antennal terminal process. As in Cinara juniperi Cinara smolandiae also has wholly dark hind tibiae. Cinara smolandiae can be distinguished from most other Cupressobium by the long rostrum (the sclerotized part of the stylet groove) which is more than 1.25 mm and more than 0.37 × body length. The long rostrum is characteristic of Cinara species that feed on the woody tissue of their host plants. Another distinguishing feature is that the third antennal segment has 2-8 secondary rhinaria clustered at the distal end of the segment.

Cinara smolandiae feeds in bark crevices or rust cankers 1-2 m above ground on stems of trees of Juniperus communis (Juniper). Some aphids may be also be found away from the main colony on thin lignified stems. Sexuales and life cycle are unknown. So far Cinara smolandiae has been found in Sweden, Finland, north-west Russia and Scotland.

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Acknowledgements

We have made provisional identifications from high resolution photos of living specimens, along with host plant identity. In the great majority of cases, identifications have been confirmed by microscopic examination of preserved specimens. We have used the keys and species accounts of Blackman & Eastop (1994)  and Blackman & Eastop (2006)  supplemented with Blackman (1974) , Stroyan (1977) , Stroyan (1984) , Blackman & Eastop (1984) , Heie (1980-1995) , Dixon & Thieme (2007)  and Blackman (2010) . We fully acknowledge these authors as the source for the (summarized) taxonomic information we have presented. Any errors in identification or information are ours alone, and we would be very grateful for any corrections. For assistance on the terms used for aphid morphology we suggest the figure  provided by Blackman & Eastop (2006).

Useful weblinks 

References

  •  Carter, C.R. & Maslen, N.R. (1982). Conifer Lachnids. Forestry Commission Bulletin No. 58, 75pp.

  •  Durak, R. (2014). Life cycle, seasonal and interannual polymorphism in a monoecious aphid Cinara mordvilkoi (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea: Lachnidae). European Journal of Entomology 111(3), 357-362. Full text 

  •  Heie, O.E. (1980-1995). The Aphidoidea, Hemiptera, of Fennoscandia and Denmark. (Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica) E.J. Brill, London