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Schizaphis graminum

Greenbug

On this page: Identification & Distribution 

Identification & Distribution:

Adult apterae of Schizaphis graminum are small and elongate-oval. The head and prothorax is yellowish or greenish straw-coloured. The rest of the thorax and the abdomen are yellowish green to bluish green with a noticeable darker green spinal stripe. The antennae are uniformly dusky. The siphunculi are pale with slightly flared and darkened tips. The body length of Schizaphis graminum aptera is 1.3 to 2.1 mm.

First image: Kent Loeffler (Public domain).   Second image: Alton N. Sparks (Creative Common Attribution 3.0 Unported license).

Schizaphis graminum alatae have a brownish-yellow head and prothorax, black thoracic lobes and a yellowish green to dark green abdomen.

The preferred hosts are grasses and cereals, where Schizaphis graminum can be a major pest. It causes severe feeding damage - initially yellow or red leaf spots which can lead to leaf and root death. It also transmits several plant viruses including barley yellow dwarf virus. Schizaphis graminum develops sexual forms in cold temperate climates, where overwintering in the egg stage occurs predominantly on Poa pratensis, but it continues to reproduce parthenogenetically wherever the climate allows. Schizaphis graminum is not ant attended.

This aphid is of Palaearctic origin, but is now widely distributed in southern Europe, Middle East, Central and South Asia, Africa and the Americas. Despite the fact that two alatae trapped in UK had identical DNA sequences to the sorghum-adapted form in the USA, there are no records from field crops in northern Europe. We discuss why Schizaphis graminum has failed to establish itself in Western Europe in our rare aphids page. 

Acknowledgements

We especially thank Kent Loeffler and Alton N. Sparks for use of their images, above.

We have made provisional identifications from high resolution photos of living specimens, along with host plant identity. In the great majority of cases, identifications have been confirmed by microscopic examination of preserved specimens. We have used the keys and species accounts of Blackman & Eastop (1994)  and Blackman & Eastop (2006)  supplemented with Blackman (1974) , Stroyan (1977) , Stroyan (1984) , Blackman & Eastop (1984) , Heie (1980-1995) , Dixon & Thieme (2007)  and Blackman (2010) . We fully acknowledge these authors as the source for the (summarized) taxonomic information we have presented. Any errors in identification or information are ours alone, and we would be very grateful for any corrections. For assistance on the terms used for aphid morphology we suggest the figure  provided by Blackman & Eastop (2006).

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