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Statistics bibliography 07 - stats

Aarts, G. et al. (2008). Estimating space-use and habitat preference from wildlife telemetry data. Ecography 31 (1), 140-160.


Altman, D.G. & Schulz, K.F. (2001). Statistics Notes. Concealing treatment allocation in randomised trials. BMJ 323, 446-447. (August 25) [free pdf]


Altman, D.G. & Bland, J.M. (1997). Statistics Notes: Units of analysis. BMJ 314, 1874 (28 June). [free pdf]


Altman, D.G & Bland, J.M. (2005). Statistics Notes. Treatment allocation by minimisation. BMJ 330, 843.


Agudo, A. & Gonzalez, C.A. (1999). Secondary matching: a method for selecting controls in case-control studies on environmental risk factors. International Journal of Epidemiology 28 (6), 1130-1133. [free pdf]


Altman, D.G. & Bland, J.M. (1999). Statistics notes. How to randomise. BMJ 319, 703-704 (11 September). [free pdf]


Allison (1999). The implications of experimental design for biodiversity manipulations. The American Naturalist 153, 26- 45.


Araujo, P. (2008). Determining variability, confidence,and statistical power in aquaculture experiments. The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - Bamidgeh 60 (2), 134-153. [free pdf]


Armitage, P. & Berry, G. (2002). Statistical methods in medical research. 4th Edn. Blackwells, Oxford.


Armenian, H. (2009) (Ed.) The case-control method. Design and applications. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 240 pp.


Axelson, O. et al. (1994). Use of the prevalence ratio v the prevalence odds ratio as a measure of risk in cross sectional studies. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 51 (8), 574. [free]


Baigent, C. (1997). The need for large-scale randomized evidence. British Journal of Pharmacology 43, 349-353. [free pdf]


Baker, J.L. (2000). Evaluating the impact of development projects on poverty. A handbook for practitioners The World Bank. [free pdf]


Blackburn, T.M. (2004). Method in macroecology Basic and Applied Ecology 5 (5), 401-412.


Blackmore, C.G. & Cummings, P. (2004). Observational studies in radiology. American Journal of Roentgenology 183, 1203-1208. [free pdf]


Bland, M. (2000). Not a case-control study. (Rapid response) BMJ (14 July). [no longer accessible]


Bland, J.M. (2004). Cluster randomised trials in the medical literature: two bibliometric surveys. BMC Medical Research Methodology 4-21. [free pdf]


Bland, J.M. (2004). The experimental unit is wrong. (Rapid Response). BMJ 329 (27 August). [no longer accessible]


Block, W.M. et al. (2001). Design and implementation of monitoring studies to evaluate the success of ecological restoration on wildlife. Restoration Ecology 9 (3), 293-303. [free pdf]


Bennett, S. et al. (2002). Methods for the analysis of incidence rates in cluster randomized trials. International Journal of Epidemiology 31 (4), 839-846. [free pdf]


Benson, K. & Hartz, A.J. (2000). A comparison of observational studies and randomized, controlled trials. New England Journal of Medicine 342, 1878-1886. [free pdf]


Biesheuvel, C.J. et al. (2008). Advantages of the nested case-control design in diagnostic research. BMC Medical Research Methodology 8:48. [free pdf]


Björk, J. & Strömberg, U. (2002). Effects of systematic exposure assessment errors in partially ecologic case-control studies. International Journal of Epidemiology 31 (1), 154-160. [free pdf]


Bland, J.M. & Kerry, S.M. (1997). Statistics Notes - Trials randomised in clusters. BMJ 315, 600 (6 September). [free pdf]


Bloom et al. (2007). The use and misuse of matching in case-control studies: the example of PCOS. Fertility and Sterility 88 (3), 707-710. [free pdf]


Bailey, R.A. (2008) Design of comparative experiments. Cambridge University Press. 348 pp. [free pdf]


Brenner, H. et al. (1992). Effect of nondifferential exposure misclassification in ecologic studies. American Journal of Epidemiology 135, 85-95.


Bernhardsen, T. (2002). Geographic information systems: An introduction. 3rd edn. Wiley, New York. 448 pp. on line]


Bennett, S. et al. (1991). A simplified general method for cluster-sample surveys. World Health Organization Statistical Quarterly 44 (3), 98-106. [free pdf]


Bland, J.M. & Altman, D.G. (1994). Matching. BMJ 309, 1128 (29 October). [free pdf]


Boutron I, et al. (2007). Reporting methods of blinding in randomized trials assessing nonpharmacological treatments. PLoS Medicine 4 (2): e61. [free html/pdf]


Boyce, M.S. (2006). Scale for resource selection functions. Diversity and Distributions 12 (1), 269-276. [free pdf]


Barros, A.J.D. & Hirakata, V.N. (2003). Alternatives for logistic regression in cross-sectional studies: an empirical comparison of models that directly estimate the prevalence ratio. BMC Medical Research Methodology 3:21. [free pdf]


Buckland, S.T. et al. (1993). Distance sampling : Estimating abundance of biological populations. Chapman & Hall, London. [free on-line book pdf]


Burrough, P.A. & McDonnell, R.A. (1998). Principles of geographical information systems. Oxford University Press, Oxford.


Chambers, R.L. & Skinner, C.J. (Eds.) (2003). Analysis of Survey Data (Wiley Series in Survey Methodology). WileyBlackwell, 398 pp.


Chuang, J.-H. (2002). Design and analysis of controlled trials in naturally clustered environments: Implications for medical informatics. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 9, 230-238. [free pdf]


Cochran, W.G. (1977). Sampling techniques. 3rd Edn. John Wiley & Sons, New York.


Clarke, K.C. (1996). On epidemiology and geographic information systems: A review and discussion of future directions. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2 (2), 85-92. [free pdf]


Cook, T.D. & Campbell, D.T. (1979). Quasi-experimentation: design and analysis issues for field settings. Rand McNally Publishing Company, Chicago


Crawley, M.J. (2005). Statistics: An introduction using R. Wiley.


Crawley, M.J. (2007). The R book. Wiley. 942 pp.


Cummings, P. et al. (2003). Matched cohort methods for injury research. Epidemiology Reviews 25, 43-50. [free pdf]


Cummings, P. & McKnight, B. (2004). Analysis of matched cohort data. The Stata Journal 4 (3), 274-281. [free pdf]


Cochran (1968). Planning and analysis of observational studies. Wiley, New York and London.


Cochran, W.G. & Cox, G.M. (1992). Experimental designs. 2nd Edn. Wiley.


Costanza, M.C. (1995). Matching. Preventive Medicine 24 (5), 425-433.


Cottenie , K. & De Meester, L. (2003). Comment to Oksanen (2001): reconciling Oksanen (2001) and Hurlbert(1984). Oikos 100 (2), 394-396.,394.PDF [free pdf]


Crawley, M.J. (1993). GLIM for ecologists. Blackwell Science, Oxford.


Coutinho, L.M.S. et al. (2008). Methods for estimating prevalence ratios in cross-sectional studies. Revista de Saúde Publica 42 (6), 992-998. [free pdf]


Czitrom, V. (1999). One-factor-at-a-time versus designed experiments. American Statistician 53, 126-131.


Delaney, J. & Van Niel, K. (2007). Geographical Information Systems: An introduction. 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 224 pp. on line]


Donner, A. & Klar, N. (2000). Design and analysis of cluster randomization trials in health research. Arnold. 151 pp. on line]


Donner, A. & Klar, N. (2004). Pitfalls of and controversies in cluster randomization trials. American Journal of Public Health 94 (3), 416-422. [free pdf]


Conan Doyle, A. (1891). The Boscombe Valley mistery. First published in Strand Magazine, London, October 1891


Day, S.J. & Altman, D.G. (2000). Statistics Notes: Blinding in clinical trials and other studies. BMJ 321, 504 (19-26 August). [free pdf]


Eberhardt, L.L. & Thomas, J.M. (1991). Designing environmental field studies. Ecological Monographs 61 (1), 53-73.


Eldridge, S.M. et al. (2006). Sample size for cluster randomized trials: effect of coefficient of variation of cluster size and analysis method. International Journal of Epidemiology 35 (5), 1292-1300. [free pdf]


Feinstein, A.R. (1988). Scientific standards in epidemiologic studies of the menace of daily life. Science 242, 1257-1263 (2 December).


Fergusson, D. et al. (2008). The before/after study design in transfusion medicine: Methodologic considerations. Transfusion Medicine Reviews 16 (4), 296-303.


Ferraro P.J. & Pattanayak S.K. ( (2006). Money for nothing? A call for empirical evaluation of biodiversity conservation investments. PLoS Biology 4 (4), e105. [free html/pdf]


Festing, M.F.W. (2003). Principles: The need for better experimental design. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 24 (7), 341-345.


Fottrell, E. & Byass, P. (2008). Population survey sampling methods in a rural African setting: measuring mortality. Population Health Metrics 6:2. [free pdf]


Fisher, R.A. (1935). The design of experiments. 1st Edition. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh, Scotland.


Frerichs, R.R. (1989). Simple analytic procedures for rapid microcomputer-assisted surveys in developing countries. Public Health Reports 104, 24-35. [free pdf]


Garcia-Berthou, E. & Hurlbert, S. (1999). Pseudoreplication in hermit crab shell selection experiments: Comment to Wilber. Bulletin of Marine Science 65 (3), 893-895.,%20893-895.pdf [free pdf]


Garey, K.W. (2004). The Role of Matching in Epidemiologic Studies. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 68 (3), Article 83. [free pdf]


Gillings, D. et al. (1981). Analysis of interrupted time series mortality trends: An example to evaluate regionalized perinatal care. American Journal of Public Health 71 (1), 38-46. [free pdf]


Green, S.B. (2002). Design of Randomized Trials. Epidemiologic Reviews 24 (1), 4-11. [free pdf]


Greenland, S. (2001). Ecologic versus individual-level sources of bias in ecologic estimates of contectual health effects. International Journal of Epidemiology 30 (6), 1343-1350.,pdf [free pdf]


Grimes, D.A. & Schulz, K.F. (2005). Compared to what? Finding controls for case control studies. Lancet 365, 1429-1433 (30 April). Abstract Full text [free pdf]


Greenland, S. & Holland, P. (1991). Estimating standardized risk differences from odds ratios. Biometrics47 (1), 319-322.


Greenland, S. & Morgenstern, H. (1990). Matching and efficiency in cohort studies. American Journal of Epidemiology 131 (1), 151-159.


Grimes, D.A. & Schultz, K.F. (2002). Descriptive studies: what they can and cannot do. The Lancet 359, 145-149 (12 January). [free pdf]


Grimes, D.A. & Schultz, K.F. (2002). Cohort studies: marching towards outcomes. The Lancet 359, 341-345 (26 January).


Greenwood, D. (2000). Re: Not a case-control study. (Rapid response) BMJ (18 July). [no longer accesible]


Gurwitz et al. (2005). Reader's guide to critical appraisal of cohort studies: 1. Role and design. BMJ 330, 895-7. [free pdf]


Gotelli, N.J. & Ellison, A,M. (2004). A primer of ecological statistics. Sinauer Assoc Inc, 479 pp. [free pdf of Chapter 7]


Harris, A.D. (2004). The use and interpretation of quasi-experimental studies in infectious diseases. Clinical Infectious Diseases 38 (12), 1586-1591. [free pdf]


Harris, A.D. et al. (2006). The use and interpretation of quasi-experimental studies in medical informatics Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13, 16-23. [free pdf]


Heffner, R.A. et al. (1996). Pseudoreplication revisited. Ecology 77 (8), 2558-2562.


Hróbjartsson, A. et al. (2007). Blinded trials taken to the test: an analysis of randomized clinical trials that report tests for the success of blinding. International Journal of Epidemiology 36 (3), 654-663. [free pdf]


Hewitt, C. et al. (2005). Adequacy and reporting of allocation concealment: review of recent trials published in four general medical journals. BMJ 330, 1057-1058 (7 May). [free pdf]


Hewitt, J.E.(2007). The effect of spatial and temporal heterogeneity on the design and analysis of empirical studies of scale-dependent systems. The American Naturalist 169 (3), 1238-1243. [free pdf]


Hill, A.B.(1965). The environment and disease: association or causation? Proceedings of the Royal Society. Medical 58 (5), 295-300. [free pdf]


Hinklemann, K. & Kempthorne, O. (2008). Design and analysis of experiments. Volume 1. Introduction to experimental design. 2nd Edn. Wiley. 631 pp.


Hildebrand, P. (2000). Not a case-control study. Author's response. (Rapid response) BMJ (20 July). [no longer accessible]


Hoshaw-Woodard, S. (2001). Description and comparison of the methods of cluster sampling and lot quality assurance sampling to assess immunization coverage. WHO report WHO/V&B/01.26. World Health Organization, Geneva. 15 pp. [free pdf]


Hurlbert, S.H. (1984) Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experiments. Ecological Monographs 54 (2), 187-211. [free pdf]


Hurlbert, S.H. (1997). Review of Experiments in Ecology, by A.J. Underwood, Cambridge University Press, 1996. Endeavour 21, 172-173. [free pdf]


Hurlbert, S.H. (2004). On misinterpretations of pseudoreplication and related matters: a reply to Oksanen. Oikos 104 (3), 591-597. [free pdf]


Hurlbert, S. (2009). The ancient black art and transdisciplinary extent of pseudoreplication. Journal of Comparative Psychology 123 (4), 434-443. [free pdf]


Hurlbert, S.H. & Lombardi, C.M. (2003). Design and analysis: Uncertain intent, uncertain result. Book review of Quinn, G.P. & Keough, M.J. (2002). Experimental design and data analysis for biologists. CUP, New York. Ecology 84 (3), 810-812.


Hurlbert, S.H. & Meikle, W.G.. (2003). Pseudoreplication, fungi, and locusts. Journal of Economic Entomology 96 (3), 533-535. [abstract only]


Hurlbert, S.H. & White, M.D. (1993). Experiments with freshwater invertebrate zooplanktivores: Quality of statistical analyses. Bulletin of marine science. 53, 128-153. [free pdf]


Hay, S.I. et al. (2000). Remote sensing and geographical information systems in epidemiology. Academic Press, London.


Heckman, J.J. & Smith, J.A. (1995). Assessing the case for social experiments. Journal of Economic Perspectives 9 (2), 85-110. [free pdf]


Inouye, B.D. (2005). The importance of the variance around the mean effect size of ecological processes: comment. Ecology 86 (1), 262-265. [free pdf]


Johnson, P.D. & Besselsen, D.G. (2002). Practical aspects of experimental design in animal research. ILAR Journal 43 (4), 202-206. [free pdf]


James, W.L. et al. (2004). A brief visual primer for the mapping of mortality trend data. International Journal of Health Geographics 3:7. [free]


Jones, B. & Kenward, M.G. (2003). Design and analysis of cross-over trials. 2nd Edn. Chapman & Hall,/CRC. 408pp. on line]


Jessup, D.A. (2003). Opportunistic research and sampling combined with fish and wildlife management actions or crisis response. ILAR Journal 44 (4), 277-285. [free pdf]


Jewett, D.L. (2005). What's wrong with single hypotheses?: Why it is time for Strong-Inference-PLUS. Scientist 19 (21), 10. [free pdf]


Kang, M. et al. (2008). Issues in outcomes research: An overview of randomization techniques for clinical trials. Journal of Athletic Training 43 (2), 215-221. [free pdf]


Kaplan, S. et al. (1998). A methodological note on the selection of friends as a control. International Journal of Epidemiology 27 (4), 727-729. [free pdf]


Karon, J.M. & Kupper, L.L. (1982). In defense of matching. American Journal of Epidemiology 11 (5), 852-866.


Keating, K.A. & Cherry, S. (2004). Use and interpretation of logistic regression in habitat-selection studies. Journal of Wildlife Management 68 (4), 774-789.[0774:UAIOLR]2.0.CO;2


Kestenbaum, B. (2009). Epidemiology and Biostatistics Springer, New York.


Kish, L. (1965). Survey Sampling Wiley & Sons, New York. 664 pp.


Kilkenny C. et al. (2009). Survey of the quality of experimental design, statistical analysis and reporting of research using animals. PLoS ONE 4 (11), e7824. [free html/pdf]


Klar, N. & Donner, A. (1997). The merits of matching in community intervention trials: a cautionary tale. Statistics in Medicine 16 (15), 1753-1764.<1753::AID-SIM597>3.0.CO;2-E


Knol, M. et al. (2008). What do case-control studies estimate? Survey of methods and assumptions in published case-control research. American Journal of Epidemiology 168 (9), 1073-1081. [free pdf]


Kozlov, M.V. (2003). Pseudoreplication in Russian ecological publications. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 84 (2), 45-47. (Full Russian version published in Zhurnal Obstchei Biologii [Journal of Fundamental Biology] 64, 292-307.) [free pdf]


Kozlov, M.V. & Hurlbert, S.H. (2006). Pseudoreplication, chatter, and the international nature of science: A response to D. V. Tatarnikov. Russian version published in Zhurnal Obstchei Biologii [Journal of Fundamental Biology] 67 (2), 145-152. [free pdf]


Kupper, L.L. et al. (1981). Matching in epidemiologic studies: Validity and efficiency considerations. Biometrics 37, 271-291.


Lathyris, D.N. et al. (2007). Evidence from crossover trials: empirical evaluation and comparison against parallel arm trials. International Journal of Epidemiology 36 (2), 422-430. [free pdf]


Lee, J. (1994). Odds ratio or relative risk for cross-sectional data? International Journal of Epidemiology 23, 201-203.


Legga, C.J. & Nagyb, L.. (2006). Why most conservation monitoring is, but need not be, a waste of time. Journal of Environmental Management 78 (2), 194-199.


Lehtonen, R. & Pahkinen, E. (2003). Practical Methods for Design and Analysis of Complex Surveys 2nd Edn. WileyBlackwell, 360 pp.


Levy, P.S. & Lemeshow, S. (1991) Sampling of populations: methods & applications. Wiley & Sons, New York.


Lombardi, C.M. & Hurlbert, S.H. (1996). Sunfish cognition and pseudoreplication. Animal Behaviour 52 (2), 419-422. [free pdf]


Longley, P.A. et al. (2005). Geographic Information Systems and Science Wiley, New York. 536 pp. on line]


Lu, C.Y. (2009). Observational studies: a review of study designs, challenges and strategies to reduce confounding. International Journal of Clinical Practice 63 (5), 691-697. [free pdf]


Luman, E.T. et al. (2007). Comparison of two survey methodologies to assess vaccination coverage. International Journal of Epidemiology 36 (3), 633-641. [free htm1]


Lumley, T. (2010). Complex surveys: a guide to analysis using R. Wiley & Sons. [book website]


Lewis, S.C. & Warlow, C.P. (2004). How to spot bias and other potential problems in randomised controlled trials. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 75 (2), 181-187. [free pdf]


Murtaugh, P.A. (2002). On rejection rates of paired intervention analysis. Ecology 83 (6), 1752-1761.[1752:ORROPI]2.0.CO;2 [free pdf]


Mamdani, M. et al. (2005). Reader's guide to critical appraisal of cohort studies: 2. Assessing potential for confounding. BMJ 330,960-962 (23 April). [free pdf]


Manly, B.F.J. (2008). Statistics for Environmental Science and Management. 2nd edn. Chapman & Hall. 292 pp. on line]


Marshall, T. (2004). What is a case-control study? (Letter) International Journal of Epidemiology 33, 612-617 [free pdf]


Martin, D.C. et al. (1993). The effect of matching on the power of randomized community intervention studies. Statistics in Medicine 12, 329-338.


McNutt, L. et al. (2003). Estimating the relative risk in cohort studies and clinical rials of common outcomes. American Journal of Epidemiology157 (10), 319-322. [free pdf]


Murtaugh, P.A. (2000). Paired intervention analysis in ecology. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 5 (3), 280-292.


McArdle, B.H. (1996). Levels of evidence in studies of competition, predation and disease. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 20 (1), 7-15. [free pdf]


f0f0> McDonald, T.L. et al. (2000). Analysis of count data from before-after control-impact studies. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 5 (3), 262-279.


Mead, R. (1988). The design of experiments. Statistical principles for practical application. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.


Meier, P. (1975). Statistics and medical experimentation. Biometrics 31, 511-529.


Meinert, C.L. (1986). Clinical trials: Design, conduct and analysis. Oxford University Press, USA. 496 pp. on line]


Meyer, B.D. (2006). Natural and quasi-experiments in economics. Journal of Business & Economic Statistics 13 (2), 151-161. [free pdf]


Mezei, G. & Kheifets, L. (2006). Selection bias and its implications for case-control studies: a case study of magnetic field exposure and childhood leukaemia. International Journal of Epidemiology 35 (2), 397-406. [free pdf]


Millar, R.B. & Anderson, M.J. (2004). Remedies for pseudoreplication. Fisheries Research 70 (2-3), 397-407.


Moerbeek, M. et al. (2003). A comparison between traditional methods and multilevel regression for the analysis of multicenter intervention studies. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 56, 341-350. [free pdf]


Monserud, R.A. (1995). Large-Scale Forest Management Experiments: Advantages and Problems. FAO Report [free html]


Morgenstern, H. (1998). Ecologic studies. pp 459-480 in: Rothman, K.J. & Greenland, S. (eds). Modern epidemiology. 2nd edn. Lippincott, Philadelphia.


Morgenstern, H. (1995). Ecologic studies in epidemiology: Concepts, principles and methods. Annual Reviews in Public Health 16, 61-81.


Morgenstern, H. & Thomas, D. (1993). Principles of study design in environmental epidemiology. Environmental Health Perspectives 101 (Suppl 4), 2486-2491. [free pdf]


Morrison, D.A. & Morris, E.C. (2000). Comment. Pseudoreplication in experimental designs for the manipulation of seed germination treatments. Austral Ecology 25, 292-296. [free pdf]


Murray, D.M. (2004). Design and analysis of group-randomized trials: A review of recent methodological developments. American Journal of Public Health 94, 423-432. [free pdf]


Normand S.L.T. et al. (2005). Reader's guide to critical appraisal of cohort studies: 3. Analytical strategies to reduce confounding. BMJ 330, 1021-1023. [free pdf]


O'Donohue, W. & Buchanan, J.A. (2001). The weakness of strong inference. Behavior and Philosophy 29, 1-20. [free pdf]


Oksanen, L. (2001). Logic of experiments in ecology: is pseudreplication a pseudoissue? Oikos 94 (1), 27-38. [free pdf]


Osborn, J. & Cattaruzza, M.S. (1995). Odds ratios and relative risk for cross-sectional data. International Journal of Epidemiology 24 (2), 464-465.


Petersen, R.G. (1985). Design and analysis of experiments. Dekker, New York & Basel.


Pearce, J.L. & Boyce, M. (2006). Modelling distribution and abundance with presence-only data. Journal of Applied Ecology 43 (3), 405-412. [free]


Pearce, N. (1993). What does the odds ratio estimate in a case-control study. International Journal of Epidemiology 22 (6), 1189-1192.


Pearce, N. (2004). Effect measures in prevalence studies. Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (10), 1047-1050. [free pdf]


Pfeiffer, D.U. et al. (2008). Spatial analysis in epidemiology. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 208 pp. on line]


Phillips, S.J. et al. (2006). Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecological Modelling 190 (3-4), 231-259. [free pdf]


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Pocock, S.J. (1983). Clinical trials. A practical approach. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.


Priede, I.G. & Swift, S.M. (eds.) (1992). Wildlife telemetry: Remote monitoring and tracking of animals. Ellis Horwood, Chichester. 708 pp.


Quinn, J.F. & Dunham, A.E. (1983). On hypothesis testing in ecology and evolution. The American Naturalist 122 (5), 602-617. [free pdf]


Quinn, G.P. & Keough, M.J. (2002). Experimental design and data analysis for biologists. Cambridge University Press, New York.


Rasmussen, P.W. et al. (2001). Time series intervention analysis: Unreplicated large scale experiments. pp 158-177 In: Scheiner, S.M. & Gurevitch, J. Design and analysis of ecological experiments. Oxford University Press, Oxford.


Rabinowitz, P.M. et al. (1999). Wildlife as sentinels for human health hazards: a review of study designs. Journal of Environmental Medicine 1 (4), 217-233.


Ramirez, C.C. et al. (2000). Pseudoreplication and its frequency in olfactometric laboratory studies. Journal of Chemical Ecology 26 (6), 1423-1431. [free pdf]


Ramsey, F.L. et al. (1994). Habitat association studies of the Northern Spotted Owl, Sage Grouse, and Flammulated Owl. pp 189-209 in: Lange, N. et al.(eds). Case studies in biometry. Wiley, New York.


Robbins, A.S. et al. (2002). What's the Relative Risk? A Method to Directly Estimate Risk Ratios in Cohort Studies of Common Outcomes. Annals of Epidemiology12 (7), 452-454. [free pdf]


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Rothman, K.J. & Greenland, S. (1997). Cohort studies. pp 79-91 in: Rothman, K.J. & Greenland, S. (eds). Modern Epidemiology. 2nd edn. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia.


Rodriguez, L. & Kirkwood, B.R. (1990). Case-control designs in the study of common diseases: updates on the demise of the rare disease assumption and the choice of sampling scheme for controls. International Journal of Epidemiology 19 (1), 205-213.


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Rosenbaum, P.R .(2010). Design of Observational Studies. Springer Series in Statistics, 385 pp.


Rothman, K.J. & Greenland, S. (2008). Chapter 8. Case-control studies. pp 111-127. In: Rothman, K.J. et al. (eds). Modern epidemiology. 3rd edn. Lippincott, Philadelphia.


Rubin, D.B. (1986) Which ifs have causal answers. Comment on Holland, P.W. Statistics and Causal Inference. JASA 81, 945-960. Journal of the American Statistical Association 81 (No. 396), 961-964.


Rubin, D.B. (1973). Matching to remove bias in observational studies. Biometrics 29 (1), 159-183.


Sackett, D.L. (2007). Commentary: Measuring the success of blinding in RCTs: don't, must, can't or needn't? International Journal of Epidemiology 36 (3), 664-665. [free pdf]


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Schank, J.C. & Koehnle, T.J. (2009). Pseudoreplication is a pseudoproblem. Journal of Comparative Psychology 123, 421-433. [free pdf]


Scheiner, S.M. & Gurevitch, J. (2001). Design and analysis of ecological experiments. Oxford University Press. Oxford, UK.


Scheiner, S.M. (2001). Theories, hypotheses and statistics. pp 3-13 In: Scheiner, S.M. and Gurevitch, J. Design and Analysis of Ecological Experiments. Oxford University Press, Oxford.


Schlesselman, J.J. (1982) (Ed.). Case-control studies: design, conduct, analysis. Oxford University Press, New York.


Schulz, K.F. & Grimes, D.A. (2002). Generation of allocation sequences in randomised trials: chance, not choice. The Lancet 359, 515-519 (9 February). [free pdf]


Schulz, K.F. & Grimes, D.A.(2002) . Blinding in randomised trials: hiding who got what. Lancet 359, 696-700 (23 February).


Schulz, K.F. & Grimes, D.A. (2002). Case-control studies: research in reverse. The Lancet 359, 431-434 (2 February). 

Shadish, W.R. et al. (2002). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.


Simon, R. (1979). Restricted randomization designs in clinical trials. Biometrics 35 (2), 503-512.


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