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Dark-tipped fern aphidOn this page: Identification & Distribution Biology & Ecology Other aphids on the same host Damage & Control
Identification & Distribution
Adult apterae of Amphorophora ampullata sensu lato are green except for the eyes which are red, the siphunculi which have the distal half brown and the apices black, the tarsi and the tips of antennal segments III-VI and tibiae which are black. The characteristics given first in this section refer to Amphorophora ampullata sensu stricto, followed by comparisons with the subspecies. The terminal process is 3.5-5.2 times the length of the base of antennal segment VI (Amphorophora ampullata laingi, which has the terminal process 5.0-6.6 times the length of the base of antennal segment VI). Antennal segment III has 5-23 secondary rhinaria (cf.Amphorophora ampullata bengalensis, which has only 1-6 rhinaria near the base). The apical rostral segment (R IV+V) is 0.85-1.15 times the length of the second hind tarsal segment (HT II) (cf. Amphorophora ampullata bengalensis, which has RIV+V 1.15-1.4 times the length of HTII). The siphunculi are almost smooth, have little or no subapical reticulation, and are swollen on the distal part with maximum width about twice the narrowest width just next to the flange. The siphunculi are 1.9-2.7 times the length of the cauda (cf. Amphorophora ampullata laingi which has siphunculi 1.5-2.1 times the length of the cauda). The cauda is short and thick with 20 hairs. The body length of adult apterae of Amphorophora ampullata sensu stricto is 3.0-5.0 mm.
Both images above by permission, copyright Claude Pilon, all rights reserved.
Amphorophora ampullata feeds on the frond undersides of ferns in a number of genera (e.g. Asplenium, Athyrium, Cystopteris, Dryopteris, Onoclea, Polypodium, Polystichum). It does not host alternate, remaining all year on ferns. Sexual forms with alate males develop in autumn, and the population overwinters in the egg stage. Amphorophora ampullata is found in Europe, Asia and North America.
Biology & Ecology
Reddy & Kumari (2016) studied the seasonal incidence of Amphorophora ampullata on the fern, Hypolepis polypodioides in Western Himalayas, India. Aphid abundance showed two peaks in a year. In the first year of sampling, peak incidence of aphids was recorded during the third week of November (c. 26 aphids/pinna); the aphid population gradually decreased from December 2012 onwards and fell below threshold detection level during the last week of January. The aphid population started building up again from first week of February 2013 and attained its peak in the last week of August (c. 32 aphids/pinna). It then decreased gradually until the first week of September (c. 20 aphids/pinna) before increasing again to reached maximum aphid densities during November (c. 56 aphids/pinna). Among weather parameters, relative humidity during morning hours was [positively]correlated with aphid numbers.
Other aphids on the same host
Amphorophora ampullata has not been reported on any named species of Asplenium, but has been reported on ferns in genus Asplenium.
Amphorophora ampullata has been reported on one species of Pteridium, Pteridium aquilinum.
Amphorophora ampullata has been reported on three species of Athyrium (Athyrium filix-femina, Athyrium rubripes, Athyrium yokoscense).
Damage and control
Reddy & Kumari (2013) noted that both nymphs and adult Amphorophora ampullata are responsible for causing damage to Hypolepis polypodioides. They were found congregating on the lower surface of fronds. They injure the plant by piercing and sucking the sap, which results in yellowing, loss of vigour, drying, and dropping of fronds. In severe infestations, entire plants start drying and wilting.