Biology, images, analysis, design...
|"It has long been an axiom of mine that the little things are infinitely the most important" |
Giant conifer aphidsOn this page: Cinara acutirostris apini brauni cedri confinis costata cuneomaculata cupressi curvipes fornacula fresai hottesi juniperi kochiana laportei laricifex laricis maghrebica nuda pectinatae pergandei piceae piceicola pilicornis pinea pini pinihabitans pruinosa schimitscheki smolandiae strobi tujafilina
Genus Cinara [Eulachnini]
Cinara aphids are usually large (apterae up to 5-6 mm in length), and may be winged or wingless. They are frequently wax-powdered and densely haired. The antennae are shorter than half the body length. The rostrum is relatively long reaching to behind the hind coxae. The apical part of the rostrum is slender, pointed and very long, 2-5 times as long as its basal width and is made up of two segments termed RIV and RV. The abdominal dorsum has 6 or more longitudinal rows of small, dark brown intersegmental muscle sclerites. The siphunculi are pore-like and located on broad, often pigmented, hairy cones. The cauda is always broader than long, either rounded or triangular. Males may be wingless or winged depending on species, and oviparae often differ from viviparae in the presence of a perianal ring of wax.
Cinara is a very large genus sometimes assigned to its own subfamily, with species on conifers of the families Pinaceae and Cupressaceae. Many Cinara species (150) are native to North America, but there are also 55 species found in Europe and Asia. Cinara aphids do not host alternate, but remain on their chosen host species throughout the year. They may feed on the roots, branches, or foliage, and are often attended by ants. Go to the 'read more' pages for more pictures and descriptions of other forms, plus ant attendance and natural enemies.
Cinara acutirostris (Corsican pine aphid) Europe, Asia, South America
Cinara acutirostris apterae are dark brown to pale bronze, with a pattern of dark markings, a pale grey longitudinal line of wax dust and lateral wax patches on the dorsum. The appearance of the species is very similar to Cinara pini so we give several discriminating characteristics. The combined length of the last two rostral segments (RIV+V) is 1.2 to 1.5 times the length of the second tarsal segment (cf. Cinara pini which has the length of RIV+V less than 1.2 times the length of the second tarsal segment). Also the length of RV is more than 3 times its basal width (cf. Cinara pini where the length of RV is less than 3 times its basal width). The siphuncular cones of Cinara acutirostris are large, prominent and black. There are several rather long hairs up to 100 µm long between the siphuncular cones (cf. Cinara pini where the longest hairs are only 6-50 µm long.) The body length of adult apterae is 2.6-4.1 mm.
The alates are similar to the apterae, but have predominantly dark legs with pale areas closest to the body. Oviparae are dark brown with white wax marks laterally on the dorsum. Males are small (around 2.7 mm) and wingless, and have a slender body form.
Cinara acutirostris is found on twigs of Corsican Pine (Pinus nigra) and Stone Pine (Pinus pinea). Oviparae and males can be found in October, and the species overwinters as eggs laid on the needles. It is found in western, southern and central Europe, China, and introduced to Argentina. Cinara acutirostris is commonly classed as an invasive species because of its introduction to countries along with Corsican Pine.
Cinara apini (Spotted short-haired limber pine aphid.htm) Western North America
Adult apterae of Cinara apini are described as dark brown mottled with wax powder on spinal and marginal areas and intersegmentally (cf. Cinara flexilis, which has no wax powder on the dorsum). Our pictures suggest that dorsum may also have patches of chestnut brown. The appendages are mainly yellowish to dusky, apart from the distal two-thirds of the tibiae which are black. The hairs on the hind tibia are rather spine-like, and those on the dorsal side are less than 0.5 times as long as half the diameter of the tibia (cf. Cinara villosa which has the hairs on the hind tibia finer and more numerous, 0.6 to 1.5 times the diameter of the tibia). The second hind tarsal segment is less than 1.5 times the length of the penultimate rostral segment (RIV). The siphuncular cones are dark, with the diameter of the siphuncular cone greater than the length of the second hind tarsal segment (HTII) (cf. Cinara flexilis, which has the diameter of the cone less than half the length of HTII). The body length of adult Cinara apini apterae is 3.2-4.0 mm.
Images reproduced by permission copyright Chen et al., all rights reserved.
The colour of Cinara apini alate females (see third picture above) is dark brown to black on the head and thorax, reddish-brown on the abdomen, with a light wax covering on the head and thorax.
Cinara apini feeds on the small branches in the periphery of the crown of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) where they form large dense colonies. There is also one record from whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis). Oviparae and alate males occur in September-October, and eggs with a light covering of wax-wool are laid on the needles. Cinara apini is found in western North America, both in Canada and the USA.
Cinara brauni (Corsican pine shoot aphid) Europe, West Asia
Cinara brauni apterae (see first picture below) are golden brown with a thick dusting of white wax powder which contrasts with an extensive shiny sclerotized dark patch on abdominal tergites 5-7 encompassing the siphunculi. The body length of Cinara brauni apterae is 2.7-3.8 mm.
The alate vivipara (see second picture above) has the posterior sclerotization reduced so the siphuncular cones are separated and large. There are sclerotized patches or transverse bars present posteriorly. Oviparae also have extensive dorsal sclerotization on the posterior of the abdomen, as well as a bright white pericaudal wax ring and waxy powdering on the sides.
Cinara brauni is found on current year's growth and one-year-old twigs of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra). The egg-laying forms (oviparae) differ from viviparae in the presence of a pericaudal ring of wax and occur in autumn along with alate males. Formerly considered rare in both Europe and the UK (Carter & Maslen (1982)), Cinara brauni has been (accidentally) introduced into several countries through importation of Corsican pines, and is now considered an invasive species. It is frequent in southern Britain.
Cinara cedri (Large cedar aphid) Europe, North Africa, Asia, North America
Adult apterae of Cinara cedri are dark bronze or reddish-brown with a distinctive but variable pattern of white wax. There is usually a spinal white wax stripe, and paired dorso-lateral segmental patches, the latter sometimes extending as serial bands across the abdomen as in the aptera pictured below (cf. Cinara confinis which are greenish-black (see first picture below) or dark brown, with a double row of blackish slightly shining speckles and small flecks of fine wax in transverse rows). The antennae are 6-segmented (cf. Cinara laportei which has 5-segmented antennae). The aptera has 0-1 secondary rhinaria on antennal segment III, and antennal segment IV is longer than segment VI (cf. Cinara deodarae in which the aptera has about 5 secondary rhinaria on segment III, and segment IV is shorter than segment VI). Cinara cedri has mostly long hairs on the body and appendages, with the longest hairs on antennal segment III more than twice as long as the basal diameter of the segment (cf. Cinara curvipes which has short hairs, with the longest hairs on antennal segment III being about as long as the basal diameter of that segment). The siphuncular cones are black. The body length of adult Cinara cedri apterae is 2.5-3.8 mm.
Both images above copyright Ivan Pančić, all rights reserved.
The alate Cinara cedri (see second picture above) is similarly coloured to the aptera, being reddish-brown with a distinctive pattern of white wax.
Cinara cedri lives in compact colonies on the branches and trunk of cedars, namely the Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica), Cyprus cedar (Cedrus brevifolia), deodar cedar (Cedrus deodora and cedar of Lebanon (Cedrus libani)). Sexual forms develop in October, and at this time of year sexuparae and their offspring, the sexual forms, can be found in small groups hiding under Parmelia lichens which cover some of the branches. The male sexuales are alate. Cinara cedri is found in Europe, the Mediterranean area, North Africa and south-west and Central Asia. It has also been introduced to North America and Argentina.
Cinara confinis (Black-stem aphid) Europe, Asia, North America
Apterae of Cinara confinis are greenish-black (see first picture below) or dark brown, with a double row of blackish slightly shining speckles and small flecks of fine wax in transverse rows. The head and thoracic plates are dark brown, with some wax markings on the thoracic plates. The length of the sclerotized part of the stylet groove is greater than 1.8 mm. The antennae of Cinara confinis are pale yellowish-grey with a darkening of each segment distally. The length of the fifth antennal segment, including the terminal process, is clearly longer than the fourth antennal segment. The tibiae are only slightly bowed (cf. Cinara curvipes in which the tibiae are noticeably long and bowed). The femora and tibia either have dark brown annulations or are mainly black, and the tarsi are black. The siphuncular cones are dark and prominent (cf. Cinara pectinatae which has small pale siphunculi). The body length is 3.8-7.8 mm
Cinara confinis alatae (see second picture above) are grey-green also with small flecks of fine wax in transverse rows, and some wax markings apparently extending on to the anterior abdominal tergites. The ovipara is similar to the vivipara apart from having numerous pseudosensoria on the hind tibiae; it has no posterior wax ring.
Cinara confinis feeds on the stems and twigs, rarely on the roots, of many fir (Abies) species, and sometimes on Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodora). It has a holarctic distribution and is recorded from Europe, much of Asia, North America (formerly known as Cinara grossa) and Argentina. Carter & Maslen (1982) describe it as of sporadic occurrence in Britain occurring in northern Scotland, west of Ireland and southern England.
Cinara costata (Mealy spruce aphid) Europe, East Asia, Australia, North America
Cinara costata apterae are usually wax-covered; young adults have characteristic sausage-shaped rings of wax on the dorsal cuticle (see first picture below). Under the wax they are light brown or yellow-brown, sometimes with a dull metallic golden sheen, and with a pair of wax-covered dark bottle-green dorsal longitudinal stripes which sometimes coalesce at about the level of the siphuncular cones. The rather uniform yellow-brown ground colour is good identification characteristic for unwaxed colonies. The terminal rostral segments (R IV+V) are longer than the second segment of the hind tarsus (HTII), and HTII is shorter than maximum diameter of the large dark prominent siphuncular cones (cf. Cinara pilicornis which has R IV+V shorter than HTII, and HTII is longer than the maximum diameter of the small, rather pale siphuncular cones). The prominent siphuncular cones are dark brown and usually spaced three or more diameters apart (cf. Cinara pruinosa which has the prominent blackish siphuncular cones two diameters or less apart). The body length of adult Cinara costata apterae is 2.7-3.8 mm.
Both images above copyright Anders Albrecht under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Cinara costata alatae have characteristically pigmented forewings with a dark area near the apex and another one near the middle of the posterior border of the wing. The medial vein is only once-branched. The oviparae have their hind tibiae thickened with numerous pseudosensoria.
The mealy spruce aphid forms small colonies (see second picture above) on smaller woody twigs on lower branches of Spruces (Picea species). These twigs also receive a deposit of mealy wax and the aphids are not usually attended by ants. Oviparae and males occur in the northern hemisphere in October. Cinara costata occurs in Europe, east Asia, Australia, Greenland, Canada and USA.
Cinara cuneomaculata (Brown larch aphid) Europe, Asia
Adult apterae of Cinara cuneomaculata are darkish brown to orange-reddish (see two pictures below), sometimes with dark green segmental markings. There is usually a dusting of greyish wax powder on the ventral surface of adults which may (rarely) extend as stripes on to the dorsum of the abdomen. Small, hair-bearing sclerites are absent (cf. Cinara laricis which has numerous small black hair-bearing sclerites). The fourth rostral segment is from 0.15 to 0.25 mm in length (cf. Cinara kochiana which has the fourth rostral segment 0-29-0.42 mm long). The siphuncular cones are small. The legs have the hind tibiae dark for up to two thirds their length; the femora are mostly dark brown but paler proximally. The body length is 2.4-4.6 mm.
Cinara cuneomaculata feed on young twigs and shoots of larch (Larix spp.). The egg laying females (oviparae) occur in October. They are found in Europe excluding Scandinavia and the Iberian peninsula; also in parts of Asia.
Cinara cupressi (Cypress aphid) Europe, Asia, North Africa, North America
Cinara cupressi apterae (see first picture below) are mainly orange brown to yellowish brown, with blackish markings diverging back from the thorax. There are only 4-6 hairs on the basal half of antennal segment six (cf. Cinara fresai which has 7-12 hairs in this position). In life the dorsum is dusted with pale grey wax making a pattern of rather interrupted cross-bands. The whole aphid is clothed with fine hairs. There is also a rather indistinct blackish band between the black siphuncular cones. The distal parts of the femora and the bases of the tibiae are dark brown or black (cf. Cinara tujafilina which has the femora pale, and tibiae wholly pale or dark only at apices). The body length of Cinara cupressi apterae is 1.8-3.9 mm.
The alate (see second picture above) has a dark thorax, an abdomen similar to the aptera and prominent black siphuncular cones.
Cinara cupressi is found most commonly on cypress (Cupressus spp.) but also occurs on Thuja, Juniperus, Chamaecyparis and Widdringtonia. Oviparae and alate males occur in October in Europe. The cypress aphid is considered to be one of the world's 100 worst invasive alien species according to the criteria used by the international Union for the Conservation of Nature. It occurs in Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas.
Cinara curvipes (Bow-legged fir aphid) North America, Europe
Cinara curvipes apterae are shiny or dull grey-black sometimes developing a covering of pale grey wax especially on the thorax and along each side of the dorsum. The abdomen usually has a broad sclerotized cross band on VIII. The siphuncular cones are black with the maximum diameter of the base of the cones more than 3 times the aperture. The coxae are dark brown to black. The fore and mid-tibiae are pale yellow but are dark at the apices. The hind tibiae are mainly dark but with a pale section at the base; they are long and curved giving the English name bow-legged fir aphid. The body length is 3.4 - 5.5 mm.
Cinara curvipes occurs on the trunk or branches of Fir (Abies spp.) They also feed on Cedar (Cedrus deodora) and a colony has been found on Pinus contorta. Oviparae and alate males occur in September-October. Cinara curvipes is widely distributed in USA, Canada, and Mexico. In the 1990s it was first recorded in the UK, and is now widely distributed in Europe
Cinara fornacula (Large green spruce aphid) North America
Adult apterae of Cinara fornacula are pale translucent green, or less commonly pale brown or orange. They are usually lightly wax-dusted ventrally and laterally. The antennae are mainly yellow-brown but apices of segments V and VI are dark. The hairs on antennal segment III are about the same length as the diameter of that segment. The legs are mainly pale yellow brown with pale hairs, but the tips of the tibiae and the tarsi are dusky or dark, as are the terminal segments of the rostrum (cf. Cinara atripes and Cinara rara which have at least the hind tibiae uniformly pigmented). The second hind tarsal segment is exceptionally long and curved, about equal to or longer than antennal segment III. The siphuncular cones are very pale, no darker than the abdomen (cf. most other Cinara species on spruce (Picea) which have the siphunculi darker than the abdomen). The cauda and anal plate are dusky. The body length of adult Cinara fornacula apterae is 3.1-4.5 mm.
Both images above, by permission, copyright Claude Pilon, all rights reserved.
Cinara fornacula feeds at the base of the needles on current-year twig growth of several species of spruce, including white spruce (Picea glauca), black spruce (Picea mariana), blue spruce (Picea pungens) and red spruce (Picea rubens). These aphids are usually found in small numbers, and do not form large colonies. They may be attended by ants, although not closely. The males are alate, and the ovipara has a pericaudal wax ring. The distribution of Cinara fornacula is boreal and Nearctic, from Alaska to Newfoundland down to Colorado and Pennsylvania.
Cinara fresai (American juniper aphid) Cosmopolitan
Adult apterae of Cinara fresai (see pictures below) are pinkish-grey to dark brownish-grey or greenish-grey. They are dusted with white wax down the midline and laterally, quite thickly on the thoracic segments but less heavily on the abdominal segments. They have paired black patches on thoracic and anterior abdominal tergites diverging in an inverted "V". The body and appendages are clothed with long pale hairs. The base of antennal segment VI has 7-12 hairs not restricted to the basal half (cf. Cinara cupressi which has 4-7 hairs restricted to the basal half ). Rostral segment IV has 5-7 accessory hairs (see micrograph below) (cf. Cinara cupressi which has 2-4 hairs on RIV). The distal parts of the hind femora are dusky or dark (cf. Cinara tujafilina which has hind femora pale). The bases and apices of the hind tibiae are dusky or dark but with a paler area in between (cf. Cinara juniperi which has the hind tibiae uniformly dark). The body length of adult Cinara fresai apterae is 2.2-4.2 mm.
The alate Cinara fresai (not pictured) is unusual in having the radial sector not reaching the apex of the forewing. The abdominal pattern is reduced in comparison to the aptera.
Cinara fresai feeds on the needles and adjacent woody shoots and branches of various Cupressaceae, especially junipers (Juniperus chinensis, Juniperus sabina, Juniperus squamata and Juniperus virginiana and their cultivated varieties), but not apparently in Europe on the native common juniper (Juniperus communis). Cinara fresai has also been reported on some Cupressus species. Reproduction is entirely parthenogenetic. No sexual forms have ever been found. It is sometimes attended by ants. As with Cinara cupressi large infestations can lead to the development of sooty mould and blackening of shoots, and can cause diebacks of shoots and death of trees. Cinara fresai presumably got its common name (American juniper aphid) from its presence on Juniperus virginiana, but its other preferred hosts suggest it is may be native to the Far East rather than America, and has been spread worldwide by the plant trade. It has been recorded from Japan, Korea, Australia, New Zealand, England & Wales, Poland, Spain, Israel, USA, Central and South America.
Cinara hottesi (Blue-black spruce aphid) North America
The apterae of Cinara hottesi (see first picture below) are dull bluish-black in life. There is no wax deposit on the body. The dull black of the body is in sharp contrast to the mainly yellowish-orange appendages. The last two rostral segments (RIV+V) are 0.24 to 0.36 mm in length and the third antennal segment has no secondary rhinaria. The hind tibia is about 1.80-1.85 mm. in length, and the second hind tarsal segment is about 0.28 mm. The hairs on the outer side of the hind tibia are quite long (up to 0.12 mm) and markedly longer than the width of the hind tibia at midpoint (see second micrograph below). The siphuncular cones are pigmented and much darker than the rest of the cuticle. The body length of is 3.0-3.5 mm.
Images copyright Stephen McKechnie, all rights reserved.
Cinara hottesi feeds on several species of spruce, especially white spruce (Picea glauca) and black spruce (Picea mariana). It forms large colonies on the trunks of spruce trees (see second picture top). Oviparae and apterous males occur in September-October in Colorado. The species is widespread in North America, but is not found elsewhere.
Cinara juniperi (Juniper aphid) Europe, Asia, New Zealand, North America
Cinara juniperi apterae are rather more rounded in profile than most species. They are pinkish-brown under a variable thickness of fairly uniform wax dusting covering all the dorsum (cf. Cinara mordvilko where the posterior is wax free). The legs are dark brown to black and the hind tibiae are all dark. Antennal segment V is less than 0.9 times the length of segment VI (cf. Cinara mordvilkoi which has antennal segment V 0.85-1.05 times the length of segment VI). The ratio of the length of the last two segments of the rostrum to the length of the second segment of the hind tarsus is 0.60 to 0.85. The hairs along the outer side of the hind tibia are at least 1.5 times (mostly 2 to 3 times) the diameter of the tibia in the middle. The chocolate brown. dark siphuncular cones are relatively large. The body length of the Cinara juniperi adult apterae is 2.1 to 3.4 mm.
The alate Cinara juniperi is similar to the aptera, but the siphuncular cones are smaller.
Cinara juniperi feeds on Juniperus communis (common juniper) and its varieties. Most records on other hosts are misidentifications of other species. Oviparae and apterous males occur in September-October in Colorado, USA. Elsewhere it is apparently anholocyclic. Cinara juniperi is found throughout Europe, as well as parts of the Middle East, China, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, western USA, and Canada.
Cinara kochiana (Giant larch aphid) Europe, Asia
Apterae of Cinara kochiana are greyish-brown to lead grey or greyish-green (see first picture below), and are slightly wax powdered. The dorsum shows a distinct dark flecked patterning of scleroites and there is often a spinal stripe. The extraordinary long rostrum is held curving underneath the body. The fourth rostral segment (R IV) is 0.29-0.42 mm long and bears 21-34 hairs arranged in 4 longitudinal rows (cf. Cinara cuneomaculata in which R IV is 0.15-0.25 mm long and bears 5-11 hairs arranged in 2 longitudinal rows). The siphuncular cones are small and black. The legs are hairy and the hind tibiae are uniformly brown/black. The body length of Cinara kochiana is 4.7-6.1 mm.
The alate (see second picture above) has white wax markings on the dorsum of the abdomen.
Cinara kochiana is found on various larch species, including Larix decidua. Most reports state it occurs in ant attended colonies in bark crevices on the lower part of the trunk or bases of older branches, or in midsummer on exposed roots. Oviparae and winged or wingless males occur in October-November and eggs laid in bark crevices. Durak (2014) notes that Cinara kochiana is one of only five out of about 200 Cinara species to have both winged and wingless males. Cinara kochiana has been reported from most parts of Europe except Spain and Portugal, but is considered rather rare. It occurs as a subspecies in Korea.
Cinara laportei (Brown cedar aphid) North Africa, Europe, West Asia
Adult apterae of Cinara laportei are broadly oval and flattened dorso-ventrally, pale brown and grey with black segmental markings (see first picture below). The body surface is covered with short colourless clavate (=club-shaped) setae. These have been described as 'mace-like' because each one has numerous barbules arising from its swollen distal end (these can be seen on the live aphid in the first picture below and close-up in the third micrograph below). The aphid is often described as having a "narrow pale spinal stripe" from the head to the anterior abdomen. The apparent spinal (and sometimes dorso-lateral) stripes appear to result from an unusually high density of setae combined with a waxy (?) deposit. The siphuncular cones are quite large with darkened apices but are rather inconspicuous on the dark dorsum. Cinara laportei is a small species with the body length of adult apterae only 1.5-2.0 mm.
The alate Cinara laportei (see second picture below) are also small and appear to lack the clavate setae found on the aptera.
Cinara laportei forms small dense colonies on twigs and on small shoots of lower branches of cedars (Cedrus species, see third picture of live aphids above). Sexuales are produced in October at high altitudes in Morocco, but over most of its currrent range Cinara laportei is thought to reproduce parthenogenetically throughout the year. It is native to the Atlas Mountains in North Africa where it occurs on the Atlantic cedar (Cedrus atlantica), but has been expanding its range and is now found over most of Europe, and North and South Africa.
Cinara laricifex (Black larch aphid) North America
Adult apterae of Cinara laricifex (see first picture below) are black to dark brown to red-brown to bronze. There is wax-dusting ventrally and sometimes a little intersegmentally, but there is little or no wax on the dorsum (however see description of immatures below). Cleared specimens of Cinara laricifex can be readily distinguished from those of the other species feeding on Larix by the apparent lack of setae on the dorsum of the abdomen - setae are present, but are very short (0.02-0.03 mm) and are sited on small flat sclerites. The apical rostral segments (RIV+V) are usually less than 0.7 times longer than the second hind tarsal segment (HTII). The femora are mainly dark, although paler right at the base. The hind tibiae have most of the basal half pale, the pale section occupying at least 0.25 of the total tibia length (cf. Cinara laricifoliae which has the hind tibia mainly dark with a short pale section towards the base of length less than 0.2 of the total length of the tibia). The siphuncular cones are black. The body length of adult Cinara laricifex apterae is 2.5-3.5 mm. Immatures (see second and third pictures below) are variably waxed, with some fourth instars having extensive wax markings intersegmentally, lateral wax patches and a dorsal longitudinal white stripe.
Images above by permission, copyright Claude Pilon, all rights reserved.
The alate Cinara laricifex is very dark in life, especially at the front of the head, the abdomen and the legs.
Cinara laricifex feeds on tamarack (Larix laricina). In springtime the fundatrices, which are dark brown often with a bronze lustre, occur singly or in groups of two or three. The second and subsequent generations occur in small colonies, consisting of a few females and their nymphs on new growth near the tips of twigs. Later they form colonies on the branches or trunk. Sexuales develop in autumn - the males are alate. The oviparae, which do not do not possess a pericaudal wax ring, attach their eggs to bark near the tips of the small branches. Cinara laricifex is found in Canada and the north-eastern USA.
Cinara laricis (Speckled larch aphid) Europe, Asia
Adult apterae of Cinara laricis are dark greyish-brown to reddish brown, usually with a wax bloom (see first picture below). Abdominal tergites II - VI are speckled with numerous dark sclerites dorsally and the hairs arising from them are conspicuous (thick and spine-like with raised conical bases, see first picture below). Their siphuncular cones are blackish and conspicuous, but the pigmented radius may barely exceed the diameter of the opening. The body length is 3.0-5.1 mm.
The dark sclerites on the dorsum are not quite so prominent on the alate (see second picture above). The ovipara (egg laying female) is similar to the viviparous female, and has no pericaudal wax ring. The alate male of Cinara laricis is dark brown with a variable sclerotic pattern.
Cinara laricis are found in small dense colonies on the twigs of the lower branches, or on trunks of young larch trees (Larix species). The oviparae and alate males occur in October-November. This is one of two common species of Cinara found on larch - the other is Cinara cuneomaculata. The speckled larch aphid is found throughout Europe, and is also recorded from the Far East (Mongolia, China, Korea and Japan).
Cinara maghrebica (Maghreb pine aphid) Southern Europe, West AsiaAdult apterae of Cinara maghrebica are chocolate-brown with a dorsal pattern of white dust. The length of the sclerotized part of the stylet groove is 1.0-1.2 mm. The longest hairs of abdominal tergites III-V are more than 50 μm. Abdominal tergite V has 12-18 long, fine hairs between the siphuncular cones. The longest hairs on the hind tibia are 60-130 μm. Abdominal tergites VII & VIII usually have a pair of dark patches. The diameter of each siphuncular cone is 0.12-0.40 mm. The body length of adult Cinara maghrebica apterae is 2.0-2.9 mm.
Images copyright Sandy Rae, all rights reserved
The Maghreb pine aphid lives often in dense colonies on young twigs of a variety of pine (Pinus) species including the Canary Islands pine (Pinus canariensis), the Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis), the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) and the stone pine (Pinus pinea). It is sometimes attended by ants. Cinara maghrebica is found in the Mediterranean areas of Italy, France, Spain, Morocco and Malta, and has also been recorded from Argentina and possibly Turkey.
Cinara nuda (Shiny pine aphid) Europe, Asia
Adult apterae of Cinara nuda (in the first picture below, the two highly reflective dark brown aphids are adult) have the dorsal abdomen uniformly shiny dark brown with little or no wax, and without a pattern of dark markings (cf. Cinara pini where the dorsum has a pattern of dark markings interspersed with a coating of pale grey wax). Dorsal abdominal hairs are short and sparse. The antennal terminal process bears 5-7 hairs between the apex and the primary rhinarium (cf. Cinara pini where the antennal terminal process bears 4 hairs between the apex and the primary rhinarium). The body length of the adult Cinara nuda aptera is 3.3-4.3 mm.
Alate Cinara nuda (see second picture above) also have the abdominal dorsum shiny, but with a little wax laterally and on the metanotum. The antennal terminal process is 0.040-0.055 mm long and bears 5-7 hairs between the apex and the primary rhinarium.
Cinara nuda is mainly found on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), but may also be found on mountain pine (Pinus mugo). It forms large ant-attended colonies on the trunk and on basal parts of older branches of young trees, or on 2- to 8-year-old parts of leading shoots of older trees. In summer smaller groups may be found under bark. Apterous males and oviparae have been found in central Europe in August to October and males have been found by us in England (see second micrograph above) as early as June. Cinara nuda is found over much of Europe and has also been found in China.
Cinara pectinatae (Green-striped fir aphid) Europe
Apterae of Cinara pectinatae are large and (usually) the abdomen is shiny bright olive green, with three diffuse paler green longitudinal bands (see first picture below). There is also a brown form (see second picture below). The head and appendages are brown and the eyes are red. The abdomen has numerous small spots scattered over the entire dorsum. The siphuncular cones are small and pale. The legs are pale and spotted or mottled with brownish. The first hind tarsal segment is at least half as long as the second hind tarsal segment. The body length is 2.8 to 5.0 mm.
Cinara pectinatae feeds on firs (Abies spp.), especially Abies alba (silver fir) but also Abies nephrolepis, numidica, pindrow, sutchuenensis (= Abies fargesii var. sutchuenensis) and veitchii. Oviparae and alate males are found in October. It is not recorded from any North American firs. Cinara pectinatae occurs throughout Europe eastward to Turkey.
Cinara pergandei (Globose pine aphid) North America
Adult apterae of Cinara pergandei are large, globose, brown aphids, often shiny with a bronze lustre. They may or may not have wax powder, possibly dependent on whether they are ant-attended or not. Those shown here were not ant-attended, and were quite heavily dusted with wax powder (see first two pictures below). Most authors describe them as lacking any dorsal wax. Their eyes are on short lateral projections of the head, usually without any evident ocular tubercle. The hairs on antennal segment III are erect & long, 2.5-3 times the basal diameter of the segment. The dorsum is finely spotted with black (best seen in the clarified mount, third picture below). These spots are black scleroites at the base of many of the hairs, and are irregular and of varying size (cf. Cinara pinivora which usually has a large pair of dark sclerites or diffuse dusky areas on each tergite bearing several hairs). Abdominal tergite V has 50-110 hairs between the siphuncular bases, most of which are on small scleroites (cf. Cinara pinea, in which tergite V has 28-49 hairs between the siphuncular bases, most of them on large scleroites). The tibiae are rather uniformly dark, sometimes slightly less so near base (cf. Cinara pinea in which all the tibiae have a pale section on the basal half). The siphuncular cones are black. The body length of an adult Cinara pergandei aptera is 3.0-4.4 mm.
The alate Cinara pergandei (not shown) has lateral extensions on its head bearing the eyes, the posterior margin of those extensions being almost as great as the diameter of the eyes.
Cinara pergandei live on the twigs and new growth of all pine species in subsection Contortae (e.g. the lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta) and on some of the southern yellow pines in subsection Australes (e.g. the jack pine, Pinus banksiana) in eastern North America, but it does not feed on other western North American pines. Oviparae and alate males can be found in September to November. Cinara pergandei is found in the eastern USA, across Canada and in Cuba.
Cinara piceae (Greater black spruce bark aphid) Europe, Asia
Apterae of Cinara piceae are uniformly jet black and are often described as "resembling the texture and shape of old droplets of tar". The anterior portion (their thoracic area) is shiny, whilst the abdomen is largely unsclerotised, indicating that the dark body colour is subcuticular. The spiracular openings are in a series of lateral depressions giving the abdomen a crenated appearance. The siphuncular cones are rather small with the sclerotized area usually no wider than twice the diameter of the rim. The coxae and tarsi are black. The hind femora are reddish brown and black distally. The body length of Cinara piceae is 4.5-6.7 mm.
Guest image (above-right), Copyright Ian Dawson, all rights reserved.
The alate (above, second and below, first) is similar in colouration to apterae. The forewings are broad and are tinted with a pale grey suffusion. The pigmented pterostigma extends almost half the length of the subcosta. The Cinara piceae alate is characterised by having 11-16 rather large secondary rhinaria on the third antennal segment. The oviparous female (pictured below under 'Life cycle') is dark yellowish grey with a large pericaudal wax ring present. The apterous male is small (around 3.5 mm), more elongate than other forms and is dark bluish grey with sclerotized areas shining black.
Cinara piceae forms large colonies in spring on the undersides of older branches and on trunks of Spruce (Picea spp.). Numerous alatae are produced in May-June. The oviparae appear in September-October, move to the current year's growth and lay wax-dusted eggs on needles. They often move to ground level or the roots in summer. They are found throughout Europe and in the Far East, and may vary greatly in abundance from year to year.
Cinara piceicola (Green-striped spruce aphid) Europe, Asia
Apterae of Cinara piceicola have a dark brown head and thorax and pale olive-buff abdomen. In life there are two longitudinal faint greyish-green dorsal stripes and a thin white wax stripe between them (see first picture below). The dorsum is not wax powdered, but the underside of the body is mealy. The abdomen of the aptera has sclerotized areas on the dorsum consisting of a transverse segmented band on segments I-III and a broad cross band on VIII (see first picture below and first micrograph below that). A key distinguishing characteristic of Cinara piceicola is that the hairs on the outer side of the hind tibiae are all short - less than 0.12 mm long (cf. most other spruce feeding aphids in which all, or many, of those hairs are long, often greatly exceeding 0.12 mm.) The siphuncular cones are usually small and rather faintly pigmented (cf. Cinara pruinosa which have prominent black siphuncular cones). The body length of the adult aptera is 2.1-4.2 mm.
Beware: Cinara piceicola often form mixed species colonies with Cinara pruinosa so, to distinguish them, look carefully at the length of hairs on the tibia and the colour of siphunculi on adults.
Cinara piceicola occurs on spruce (Picea species), especially Norway spruce, in colonies on bark of woody shoots between needle-bases in spring. They move to older branches and roots in summer. Numerous alatae are produced in May-June. Oviparae and apterous males occur from July onwards. Cinara piceicola is found in north, west and central Europe, and apparently China.
Cinara pilicornis (Spruc shoot aphid) Europe, Asia, Australia, North & South America
Apterae of Cinara pilicornis come in two colour forms. The commonest form is a plain orange brown, but some are a greyish green (see section below for colour forms). The whole aphid is clothed with numerous fine hairs and is more or less covered with a dense mealy secretion. The legs are yellowish but the distal half of the hind femur is darker. The hind tibiae are pale, or at least paler basally and medially than at apex. Most of hairs on the outer side of the middle section of the hind tibia exceed 0.12 mm in length (cf. Cinara piceicola which has the hairs on the outer side of the hind tibiae all less than 0.12 mm long). The second hind tarsal segment is sickle shaped and longer than the maximum diameter of the siphuncular cones (cf. Cinara costata and Cinara pruinosa which have the second tarsal segment shorter than the maximum diameter of the cones). The siphunculi are small and pale brownish. Body length of the adult Cinara pilicornis aptera is 2.1-4.7 mm.
The spruce shoot aphid may be found on the young growth of many different spruce species including Norwegian spruce (Picea abies) and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). It may also colonise western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla). Cinara pilicornis is found throughout Europe through to China and Japan and it has been introduced to Australia, New Zealand, North and South America.
Cinara pinea (Large pine aphid)
Apterae of Cinara pinea are shiny orange-brown early in the year (see first picture below) and grey or dark brown later on. The body is finely spotted with black and dusted with wax especially along the dorsal midline and laterally. The spots are black scleroite plates at the base of many of the hairs, especially on segment III-VI, and they are irregular, often confluent and of varying size. Siphuncular cones are small to medium sized and reddish-brown or dark brown. The body size of the large pine aphid is unusually large at 3.1-5.2 mm.
Cinara pinea are found on young trees and new shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) although sometimes on other pine species including Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) in dry areas. Oviparae and males can be found in October. They are found throughout Europe and much of Asia and have been introduced to North America.
Cinara pini (Scots pine aphid) Europe, Asia, North America
Apterae of Cinara pini are grey or greyish-green with black markings, and with either a slight bronze iridescence or a dusting of grey wax. The abdomen is wax powdered along the dorsal midline, along the segmental borders and laterally (see first picture below) (cf. Cinara nuda which has the dorsal body devoid of wax, very shiny and uniformly dark brown and cf. Cinara schimitscheki which is uniformly wax-dusted, with four rows of black spots). Dorsal hairs on the abdomen are sparse and very short, mostly 0.01-0.04 mm. (cf. Cinara acutirostris which has several rather long hairs, up to 0.1 mm long, between the siphuncular cones). The length of the first tarsal segment (HTI) is less than 0.5 times the length of the second tarsal segment (HTII) (cf. Cinara schimitscheki, Cinara pinea and Cinara pilosa which all have HTI more than 0.5xHTII). The length of the two terminal segments of the rostrum of Cinara pini is less than 1.2 times the length of HTII. Lastly the sclerotized part of the stylet groove (see second picture below) is 1.2-1.5 mm long and there are only 4 subapical hairs on the antennal terminal process (cf. Cinara nuda where the sclerotized part of the stylet groove is 1.8-2.2 mm long, and there are 4-7 subapical hairs on the antennal terminal process). The siphuncular cones are black and prominent (cf. Cinara pinihabitans, which has low and rather inconspicuous siphuncular cones). The body length of an adult Cinara pini aptera is 1.9-3.7 mm.
The alate viviparous female (see second picture) has more prominent wax deposits, and is generally more pigmented than the aptera. Immature Cinara pini are more greenish, have less patterning and have no mealy deposit. The oviparous female has no pericaudal wax ring and the male may be alate or apterous.
Cinara pini is found on young shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in spring, and later on the undersides of older foliated twigs or branches. The species overwinters as eggs. The oviparae (egg laying females) and males can be found in October. Cinara pini is found throughout Europe, also in Siberia and Japan, and has been introduced to North America.
Cinara pinihabitans (Hairy pine aphid) Northern & Eastern Europe, Asia
Adult apterae of Cinara pinihabitans (see pictures below of oviparae) have the abdomen wax powdered. On the dorsum there is a transverse dull brown to black marking between the siphuncular cones, sometimes extending forwards along the spinal and pleural areas, and a broken cross bar on tergite VIII. The apical segment(s) of the rostrum (RIV+V) is about 0.8 times as long as the second hind tarsal segment, and has 4-5 accessory hairs. Hairs on the appendages and body are denser and longer than in most pine-feeding Cinara species. Hence the longest hairs on antennal segment III of Cinara pinihabitans are 110-150 μm long (cf. Cinara nuda & Cinara pini, which both have longest hairs on antennal segment III at 25-10 μm). The longest hairs on the hind tibiae are 170-190 μm (cf. Cinara nuda & Cinara pini, which both have longest hairs on the hind tibiae at 40-130 μm). There are 40-50 hairs on the abdominal tergite between the siphuncular cones, with the longest 140-180 μm (cf. Cinara nuda & Cinara pini, which both have 3-44 hairs between the siphunculi, with the longest 5-140 μm). The siphuncular cones are rather low and inconspicuous (cf. Cinara pini, which has black and prominent siphuncular cones). The body length of Cinara pinihabitans adult aptera is 3.1-4.6 mm.
The alate Cinara pinihabitans has the posterior part of the body sometimes covered with white wax; more frequently with waxy transverse intersegmental stripes as on the anterior part of the body.
Cinara pinihabitans is monoecious on pine (Pinus species), especially Pinus sylvestris and Pinus mugo, forming colonies on old branches (see Stroyan, 1973). There is no host alternation. Sexuales occur in October, the oviparae having a very distinct pericaudal wax ring. The oviparae lays their eggs on the upper sides of the branches. The species is found over much of northern and eastern Europe and Asia.
Cinara pruinosa (Wax-bordered spruce aphid) Europe, North America
In life, apterae of Cinara pruinosa are brown or dark green, sometimes with a bronze metallic tinge. They may have waxed patches along the sides of the dorsum (see first picture below) or such patches may be reduced or absent (see second picture below) (cf. Cinara costata which are wax covered to a greater or lesser extent, with deposits of wax on surrounding twigs). The adults of Cinara pruinosa usually have blotchy blackish markings in a pattern resembling the letter omega (Ω) on tergites 1-3. The two terminal segments of the rostrum are 1.1-1.5 times longer than the second tarsal segment. The legs are conspicuously hairy, with long hairs on the outer side of the hind tibia, all or many of the hairs exceeding 0.12 mm (cf. Cinara piceicola which has only short hairs on the outer side of the hind tibia - less than 0.12 mm long). The tibiae are pale except for the apical one third of the femora, and the bases and distal halves of the tibiae and tarsi. The second tarsal segment is shorter than the maximum diameter of the cones.Cinara pruinosa adults have prominent black siphuncular cones (cf. Cinara piceicola which have usually small and rather faintly pigmented siphuncular cones). The body length of Cinara pruinosa apterae is 2.4-5.0 mm.
The Cinara pruinosa alate (see second picture above) is brown or green with a pattern of white wax spots down the midline and along the sides of the dorsum. Cinara pruinosa oviparae are somewhat smaller than the viviparae and have a pericaudal wax ring (see picture below in life cycle section). Both alate and apterous males have been recorded (the latter possibly in error).
Cinara pruinosa occurs in small colonies on the woody twigs of Spruce (Picea species) in spring, but later found at base of trunk and on roots in ant shelters. Oviparae and alate males occur in September-October, but anholocyclic overwintering on roots also occurs. Cinara pruinosa is found throughout most of Europe eastward to Turkey, and in North America (where it is often recorded as Cinara palmerae).
Cinara schimitscheki (Mealy pine aphid) Europe, Asia
Adult apterae of Cinara schimitscheki are broadly oval and somewhat flattened dorso-ventrally. They are brown, with four lateral longitudinal rows of black spots, and two spinal rows of smaller spots. The dorsum is covered with pale bluish-grey wax powder concentrated laterally and intersegmentally. Antennal hairs are fairly short, on segment 3 mostly shorter than the diameter of the segment. The rostrum (i.e. the sclerotised part of the stylet groove) is 2.3-2.5 mm long (cf. other pine feeding Cinara in which the rostrum is only 1.2-2.2 mm long). The fourth rostral segment (RIV) is 0.29-0.36 mm long. (cf. other pine feeding Cinara in which RIV is only 0.13-0.29 mm long) The dark, rather flat siphuncular cones are of moderate size (note the pictured specimens are immatures, hence the small siphunculi). The body length of adult Cinara schimitscheki apterae is 3.3-5.2 mm. Immatures (see first picture below) are also wax powdered like the adults.
The alate Cinara schimitscheki is also flattened dorso-ventrally and is covered with pale bluish-grey wax powder.
Cinara schimitscheki mainly feeds on Corsican Pine (Pinus nigra maritima), but may also be found on mountain pine (Pinus mugo), stone pine (Pinus pinea) or Bosnian pine ( Pinus leucodermis). Oviparae have been found in autumn, but males are as yet undescribed. The mealy pine aphid is found throughout most of Europe, as well as in Turkey, the Crimea and in China.
Cinara smolandiae (Giant juniper aphid) Northern Europe, Asia
Apterae of Cinara smolandiae in Sweden are dusky brownish grey with dull bronze metallic highlights in sunlight. Cinara smolandiae can be distinguished from related species by the long rostrum (measured as the sclerotized part of the stylet groove) which is more than 1.25 mm and more than 0.37 × body length (cf. Cinara juniperi, in which the length of sclerotised part of stylet groove is less than 1.25 mm, and less than 0.34 × body length). Another distinguishing feature is that the third antennal segment (see picture above) has 2-8 secondary rhinaria clustered at the distal end of the segment. (cf. Cinara juniperi, which has no secondary rhinaria on antennal segment III). Like Cinara juniperi, Cinara smolandiae has wholly dark hind tibiae (cf. Cinara cupressi, Cinara tujafilina and Cinara fresai which have the hind tibiae mostly pale or with a paler region on the basal half). The siphuncular cones are shiny black. The body length of Cinara smolandiae is usually 2.9-4.4 mm (although Scottish apterae are somewhat smaller). Immatures have more extensive wax dusting.
Cinara smolandiae is in genus Cinara, subgenus Cupressobium, which is characterized by a very short first hind tarsal segment, an unsclerotized rim of the primary rhinarium on the sixth antennal segment, and relatively few (usually 3) subapical hairs on the antennal terminal process.
Cinara smolandiae feeds in bark crevices or rust cankers 1-2 m above ground on stems of trees of Juniperus communis (Juniper). Some aphids may be also be found away from the main colony, on thin lignified stems. Sexuales and life cycle are unknown. So far Cinara smolandiae has been found in Sweden, Finland, north-west Russia and Scotland.
Cinara strobi (White pine aphid) North America
Adult apterae of Cinara strobi are long-bodied aphids with a body colour of shiny metallic to dull grey black. They have a brown head, a spinal stripe of white wax on the thoracic tergites and on the posterior abdominal tergites, and (usually) 2-3 white wax spots on each side of the dorsum. The femora are yellow-brown basally, but darker towards the apices. The hind tibiae are wholly dark and markedly bowed (see pictures below) (cf. Cinara atlantica and Cinara pinea which both have a pale section on the basal half of the hind tibiae). The longest hairs on the dorsal side of the hind tibia are usually less than 1.5 times the width of the hind tibia at midpoint (cf. Cinara pergandei which has those hairs usually more than 1.5 times the width of the hind tibia). The siphuncular cones are black. The body length of adult apterae is 3.0-3.4 mm. Immature Cinara strobi are pinkish-brown with two longitudinal faint greyish-green dorsal stripes.
Both images above by permission, copyright Claude Pilon, all rights reserved.
Alate Cinara strobi (see second picture above) are also grey black with white wax markings.
Cinara strobi is mainly found on the branches and upper trunk of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), although there are also records from Canadian red pine (Pinus resinosa). The aphids occur in comparatively large loose colonies and are usually attended by numerous ants. In autumn sexuales are produced and overwintering eggs are laid on the needles. The distribution of Cinara strobi follows that of its host, eastern white pine, from Newfoundland to Ontario in Canada and south to North Carolina in the USA.
Cinara tujafilina (Cypress pine aphid) Cosmopolitan
Adult apterae of Cinara tujafilina are reddish-brown with a dorsal pattern of bluish-white wax, and two dark brown divergent curved bands running from head to about the level of the siphunculi (see first & second picture below). The terminal process of the antenna is very short and stumpy, about as long as its basal width (cf. Cinara cupressi and Cinara fresai which have the terminal process of the antenna distinctly longer than its basal width). The hind femora are pale, and the hind tibiae are only dark at their apices, though sometimes have very localised pigmentation at their tibio-femoral joints (cf. Cinara cupressi and Cinara fresai which have the distal parts of hind femora and bases of hind tibiae dusky or dark). The body length of the adult aptera of Cinara tujafilina is 1.7-3.5 mm.
First image above copyright Boogoljub Milošević, all rights reserved.
The alate Cinara tujafilina (see third picture above) is also reddish-brown with bluish-white wax. The base of antennal segment VI of the alate has 6-16 hairs, but rarely less than 8 (cf. Cinara cupressi alatae where the base of that segment has 5-7 hairs). The antennal terminal process of the alate is about as long as its basal width (cf. Cinara juniperi and Cinara fresai alatae which have the terminal process distinctly longer than its basal width). The fourth rostral segment (RIV) of the alate has 4-8 accessory hairs (cf. Cinara cupressi alatae where RIV has 2-4 hairs). The hind tibiae of the alate are dark only at their apices (cf. Cinara juniperi and Cinara fresai alatae whose hind tibiae are entirely dark).
Cinara tujafilina can be found on many genera of Cupressaceae including Chamaecyparis, Cupressus, Juniperus and Thuja orientalis. They feed on foliated branches, on the undersides of branches near the trunk - or, in midsummer, on roots. The cypress pine aphid is sometimes attended by ants. It is believed to be almost entirely parthenogenetic, overwintering on the roots in colder climates, although oviparae and males have been recorded. Cinara tujafilina is virtually cosmopolitan, although it is commoner in warmer climates such as around the Mediterranean.