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Identification & Distribution

Adult apterae of Cinara cedri are dark bronze or reddish-brown with a distinctive but variable pattern of white wax. There is usually a spinal white wax stripe, and paired dorso-lateral segmental patches, the latter sometimes extending as serial bands across the abdomen as in the aptera pictured below (cf. Cinara confinis which are greenish-black (see first picture below) or dark brown, with a double row of blackish slightly shining speckles and small flecks of fine wax in transverse rows). The antennae are 6-segmented (cf. Cinara laportei which has 5-segmented antennae). The aptera has 0-1 secondary rhinaria on antennal segment III, and antennal segment IV is longer than segment VI (cf. Cinara deodarae in which the aptera has about 5 secondary rhinaria on segment III, and segment IV is shorter than segment VI). Cinara cedri has mostly long hairs on the body and appendages, with the longest hairs on antennal segment III more than twice as long as the basal diameter of the segment (cf. Cinara curvipes which has short hairs, with the longest hairs on antennal segment III being about as long as the basal diameter of that segment). The siphuncular cones are black. The body length of adult Cinara cedri apterae is 2.5-3.8 mm.

Both images above copyright Ivan Pančić, all rights reserved.

The alate Cinara cedri (see second picture above) is similarly coloured to the aptera, being reddish-brown with a distinctive pattern of white wax. The first picture below shows a clarified slide mount of Cinara cedri, and the second picture below shows a colony of this species of aphid on cedar of Lebanon in Turkey.

First picture, CBG Photography Group, Centre for Biodiversity Genomics under a CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication.
Second picture, copyright Oğuzoğlu & Avci (2019) under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International Licence.

Cinara cedri lives in compact colonies on the branches and trunk of cedars, namely the Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica), Cyprus cedar (Cedrus brevifolia), deodar cedar (Cedrus deodora and cedar of Lebanon (Cedrus libani)). Sexual forms develop in October, and at this time of year sexuparae and their offspring, the sexual forms, can be found in small groups hiding under Parmelia lichens which cover some of the branches. The male sexuales are alate. Cinara cedri is found in Europe, the Mediterranean area, North Africa and south-west and Central Asia. It has also been introduced to North America and Argentina.

 

Other aphids on the same host

Blackman & Eastop list 8 species of aphid as feeding on cedars (Cedrus) worldwide, and provide formal identification keys (Show World list). Of those aphid species, Baker (2015) lists 15 as occurring in Britain (Show British list).

 

Damage and control

Cinara cedri mostly feed on the shoots of the previous year and cause the needles to dry out and turn red. Young trees are especially susceptible, from which the dried needles fall, and defoliation occurs on shoot tips and canopies. In Turkey Oğuzoğlu & Avci (2019a) reported that in general, the damage to Taurus cedar (Cedrus libanica) caused by Cinara cedri was not intensive. A small number of colonies were observed - mostly on shoots - and (apart from a few sites) there was little evidence of yellowing and abscission of leaves nor of development of sooty mould. Dense colonies were mainly found in city centres, parks and gardens where honeydew secretions dripping on to cars and sidewalks was a problem. They suggested that, in cedar plantations, preservation of in-forest bushlands would increase the variety of natural enemies (see Oğuzoğlu & Avci, 2019b), and hence help maintain the balance of Cinara cedri populations.

Acknowledgements

We are extremely grateful to Ivan Pančić for the images of live Cinara cedri from Serbia.

We have made provisional identifications from high resolution photos of living specimens, along with host plant identity. In the great majority of cases, identifications have been confirmed by microscopic examination of preserved specimens. We have used the keys and species accounts of Blackman & Eastop (1994) and Blackman & Eastop (2006) supplemented with Blackman (1974), Stroyan (1977), Stroyan (1984), Blackman & Eastop (1984), Heie (1980-1995), Dixon & Thieme (2007) and Blackman (2010). We fully acknowledge these authors as the source for the (summarized) taxonomic information we have presented. Any errors in identification or information are ours alone, and we would be very grateful for any corrections. For assistance on the terms used for aphid morphology we suggest the figure provided by Blackman & Eastop (2006).

Useful weblinks

References

  • Oğuzoğlu, Ş. & Avci, M. (2019) Distribution, biology, morphology and damage of Cinara cedri Mimeur, 1936 (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the Isparta Regional Forest Directorate. Forestist 69(1), 1-10. Full text

  • Oğuzoğlu, Ş. & Avci, M. (2019) Natural enemies of Cinara cedri Mimeur 1936 (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in cedar forests in Isparta Regional Forest Directorate. Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty 19(2), 173-185. Full text