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Lachninae : Eulachnini : Cinara hyperophila
 

 

Cinara hyperophila

Waxy dark pine aphid

On this page: Identification & Distribution Other aphids on the same host

Identification & Distribution

Adult apterae of Cinara hyperophila (see first picture below) are shiny, dark brown to black with a metallic lustre which, especially in juveniles (see second picture below), can be very conspicuous. The head, thorax and abdominal underside have a fairly thick grey wax dusting. On the abdomen there is usually a spinal wax streak, spreading along the segment borders as well as rounded pre-siphuncular wax patches. Antennal segment III-V have 0-2, 0-2 and 0-3 secondary rhinaria respectively. The apical rostral segment is 0.80-0.97 times the length of the second hind tarsal segment. The legs and antennae are predominantly dark brown to black (cf. Cinara pinea, which has mainly dusky or pale legs). Although the abdomen is very dark, there is little sclerotization, this being restricted to intersegmental muscle sclerites, small scleroites on tergites V & VI, and broken or unbroken cross bars on VII and VIII. Abdominal hairs are long, and erect, most of them not originating from scleroites (cf. Cinara pinea and Cinara pilosa, both of which have many hairs arising from scleroites). The femoral hairs are rather short, erect or semierect, those on the tibiae are short and oblique. The siphunculi are black, and not very prominent. The body length of adult Cinara hyperophila apterae is 2.53.5 mm.

Images above copyright Anders Albrecht under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

The sclerotization pattern on the dorsum can be seen on the freeze-dried fourth instar aptera shown in first picture below.

Images above copyright Anders Albrecht under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

The alate viviparous female (not pictured) is rather similar to the aptera, but with longer and finer dorsal hairs. Antennal segment III bears 6-11 secondary rhinaria, with 1-3 on IV, and 1-2 on V. The hairs on the hind tibia are up to about 0.14 mm.

Cinara hyperophila are monoecious on pines (Pinus spp.), mainly Pinus sylvestris and Pinus mugo. It is usually found on small pines in forest margins, pine plantations and sea shore dunes. They form small colonies on shoots in spring, and on twigs and older branches in the summer. They are holocyclic, producing sexuales in autumn; the oviparae have a pale perianal wax ring. They produce a moderate amount of honeydew which is collected by ants (see second picture above) and wasps, but not by honeybees. Ant species recorded attending Cinara hyperophila include Formica rufa, Formica pratensis, Lasius fuliginosus, and Lasius alienus. Cinara hyperophila has been found in Scandinavia, Central Europe and Spain, which suggests the species has a wider distribution than currently recognised.

 

Other aphids on the same host

Cinara hyperophila has been recorded from 3 pine (Pinus) species (Pinus mugo, Pinus pinaster, Pinus sylvestris).

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Anders Albrecht for making his images of Cinara hyperophila available for use under a creative commons licence.

We have used the species accounts and keys given by Heie (1995), Binazzi & Scheurer (1996) and Albrecht (2017) together with information from Roger Blackman & Victor Eastop in Aphids on Worlds Plants. We fully acknowledge these authors and those listed in the reference sections as the source for the (summarized) taxonomic information we have presented. Any errors in information are ours alone, and we would be very grateful for any corrections. For assistance on the terms used for aphid morphology we suggest the figure provided by Blackman & Eastop (2006).

Useful weblinks

References

  • Albrecht, A.C. (2017). Illustrated identification guide to the Nordic aphids feeding on Conifers (Pinophyta) (Insecta, Hemiptera, Sternorhyncha, Aphidomorpha). European Journal of Taxonomy 338, 1160. Full text

  •  Binazzi, A. & Scheurer, S. (2009). Atlas of the honeydew producing conifer aphids of Europe. Aracne. 132 pp. (p.78)

  • Heie, O.E. (1995). The Aphidoidea (Hemiptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. VI. Family Aphididae: Part 3 of tribe Macrosiphini of subfamily Aphidinae, and family Lachnidae. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 31 222 p. (p.141) Abstract