Identification & Distribution:
Apterae of Elatobium abietinum are pale to dark green (see first picture below), sometimes with a partial wax bloom. The siphunculi are cylindrical, long, thin, pale and tend to be slightly s-curved. They are up to 2.5 times the length of the cauda which is pale and pointed. The body length of Elatobium abietinum apterae is 1.0-2.0 mm.
The clarified slide mounts below are of adult viviparaous female Elatobium abietinum : wingless, and winged.
Micrographs of clarified mounts by permission of Roger Blackman, copyright AWP all rights reserved.
Elatobium abietinum spend all year on the needles of spruce, especially Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and Norway spruce (Picea abies and, much less commonly fir (Abies spp.). The green spruce aphid has an unusual life cycle in that populations often continue to feed and reproduce through the winter. In spring and early summer alates are produced in response to the changing nutritional status of the host. They then migrate to other spruce where their nymphs aestivate for the summer before resuming development in autumn. Elatobium abietinum can be a serious forestry pest with colonies on spruce causing discoloration and loss of old needles (see second picture above), sometimes causing serious defoliation.The species is native to Europe, but it has now spread to Australia, New Zealand, Chile and North America. Populations in continental Europe have a sexual stage, but elsewhere overwintering is by parthenogenetic forms.
Other aphids on same host:
Elatobium abietinum has been recorded on 14 Picea species - and at least 5 Abies species (Abies cephalonica, Abies coerulea, Abies homolepis, Abies kosteri, Abies lasiocarpa).
Blackman & Eastop list about 170 species of aphids as feeding on spruces (Picea) worldwide, and provide formal identification keys.
- Of the 31 aphid species Blackman & Eastop list as feeding on sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) Baker (2015) lists 16 as occurring in Britain:
- Of the 28 aphid species Blackman & Eastop list as feeding on Norwegian spruce (Picea abies) Baker (2015) lists 16 as occurring in Britain:
We especially thank the UK Forestry Commission Bedgebury Pinetum for their kind assistance, and permission to sample.
Our particular thanks to Roger Blackman for images of his clarified slide mounts.
Whilst we make every effort to ensure that identifications are correct, we cannot absolutely warranty their accuracy. We have mostly made identifications from high resolution photos of living specimens, along with host plant identity. In the great majority of cases, identifications have been confirmed by microscopic examination of preserved specimens. We have used the keys and species accounts of Blackman & Eastop (1994) and Blackman & Eastop (2006) supplemented with Blackman (1974), Stroyan (1977), Stroyan (1984), Blackman & Eastop (1984), Heie (1980-1995), Dixon & Thieme (2007) and Blackman (2010). We fully acknowledge these authors as the source for the (summarized) taxonomic information we have presented. Any errors in identification or information are ours alone, and we would be very grateful for any corrections. For assistance on the terms used for aphid morphology we suggest the figure provided by Blackman & Eastop (2006).