InfluentialPoints.com
Biology, images, analysis, design...
Aphids Find them How to ID AphidBlog
"It has long been an axiom of mine that the little things are infinitely the most important" (Sherlock Holmes)

Search this site

Aphidinae : Macrosiphini : Eucarazzia elegans
 

 

Eucarazzia elegans

Mediterranean mint aphid

On this page: Identification & Distribution Other aphids on the same host Damage & Control

Identification & Distribution

Adult apterae of Eucarazzia elegans (see first picture below) have a pale yellow-green membranous dorsum, with a few darker green blotches, and sometimes a sparse covering of fine wax. Antennal tubercles are rather low, not converging, and the median frontal tubercle is only just visible. Their antennae are pale with the apices of segments III-VI dark, and a terminal process that is about 4 times as long as the base of segment VI. There are a few secondary rhinaria on segments III and IV. The rostrum does not reach the hind coxae, and the apical rostral segment is about 1.5 times the length of the second hind tarsal segment. The legs are pale, with dark apices to the tibiae. They have strongly swollen siphunculi (cf. most other aphid species on mint, including Ovatus mentharius, which do not have strongly swollen siphunculi). The siphunculi are pale with the basal part of the swollen area and the apex brownish; the swollen part of the siphunculi is 2-3 times as wide as the basal part of the siphunculi, and there is a small but distinct flange. The cauda is pale with 5-7 hairs, hardly longer than wide, and only 0.14-0.17 times the length of the siphunculi.

First image above, copyright Scott M. Logan, second image above copyright Pat Simpson
both under an attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International Licence (CC BY-NC 4.0).

The alate Eucarazzia elegans (see pictures below) has a dark head and thorax, and a pale green abdomen mostly covered with fine white wax. The only parts of the abdomen not covered by wax are tergites IV-V, which bear a characteristic dark rectangular spinopleural sclerite which links with large postsiphuncular sclerites. There are also small marginal sclerites and a sclerotized bar on tergite VIII. Their wax covering serves to enhance the visibility of the dark markings, which suggests this functions as an aposematic marking. The antennae are dark apart from the base of segment III. Antennal segment III bears 17-24 rather large, scattered secondary rhinaria over nearly its whole length, and there are about 3-9 flatter rhinaria along one side of segment IV. The wings have dark triangular spots at the ends of all the wing veins, and vein Cu1b has a fuscous border for its entire length. Their legs are mainly pale, but with the distal parts of the femora dark, as are the apices of the tibiae, and the tarsi. The siphunculi have the swollen part and the basal area dark, the distal part of the cylindrical section paler. The cauda is pale.

Note: Most accounts in the literature do not mention the white wax on this aphid, especially on the alatae. An exception is Stoetzel (1985) who comments on the striking appearance of the alate with a silvery, waxy covering on its head and thorax, and on those abdominal segments not bearing black markings.

First image above, copyright Jesse Rorabaugh no rights reserved
Second image above copyright Scott M. Logan under a CC BY-NC 4.0 licence.

Eucarazzia elegans feeds on the undersides of leaves, shoots, and flowers of mints (Mentha spp.) and various other Lamiaceae including sage (Salvia spp.), catmints (Nepeta) and oreganos (Origanum). In warm and humid climates, Eucarazzia elegans is an anholocyclic species, reproducing parthenogenetically throughout the year. In areas with an arid climate with a hot summer and cold winter the species is holocyclic, with oviparae and both alate and apterous males having been recorded (Wieczorek & Chlond, 2019). Eucarazzia elegans is thought to be Mediterranean in origin, but is now widely distributed outside its native area being found in the Middle East, Central Asia, Pakistan, northern India, southern Poland, Australia, Africa south of the Sahara, western USA and South America.

 

Other aphids on the same host

Eucarazzia elegans has been recorded from 5 mint species (Mentha longifolia, Mentha pulegium, Mentha rotundifolia, Mentha suaveolens, Mentha x verticillata).

Eucarazzia elegans has been recorded from 9 sage species (Salvia arborescens, Salvia longistyla, Salvia mellifera, Salvia officinalis, Salvia pratensis, Salvia satureja, Salvia splendens, Salvia verbenaca, Salvia viridis).

 

Damage and control

Zarkani et al. (2017) looked at the incidence and economic impact of the mint aphid Eucarazzia elegans on common sage.

Acknowledgements

We have used the keys and species accounts of Hille Ris Lambers (1953), Stoetzel (1985) & Wieczorek & Chlond (2019) together with information from Roger Blackman & Victor Eastop in Aphids on Worlds Plants. We fully acknowledge these authors and those listed in the reference sections as the source for the (summarized) taxonomic information we have presented. Any errors in identification or information are ours alone, and we would be very grateful for any corrections. For assistance on the terms used for aphid morphology we suggest the figure provided by Blackman & Eastop (2006).

Useful weblinks

References

  • Hille Ris Lambers, D. (1953). Contributions to a monograph of the Aphididae of Europe. V. The genera Rhopalosiphoninus Baker, 1920; Eucarazzia Del Guercio, 1921; Rhopalomyzus Mordv., 1921; Chaetosiphon Mordv., 1914; Cryptomyzus Oestl., 1922; Pleotrichophorus Borner, 1930; Capitophorus V. D. Goot, 1913. Temminckia 9, 1-176.

  • Stoetzel, M.B.. Eucarazzia elegans (Ferrari), an aphid new to the Western Hemisphere, with archival data (Homoptera: Aphididae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 87(1), 44-48. Abstract

  • Wieczorek, K. & Chlond, D. (2019). Description of the previously unknown sexual morphs of Eucarazzia elegans from Iran and Pakistan and the northernmost record of viviparous generation from Europe. Bulletin of Insectology 72(2): 177-186. Full text

  • Zarkani, A. et al. (2017). Incidence and economic impact of the mint aphid Eucarazzia elegans (Ferrari) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on common sage. Turk. entomol. derg. 41(4), 383-392. Full text