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Greenideinae : Greenideini : Greenidea artocarpi
 

 

Greenidea artocarpi

Jackfruit aphid, Breadfruit aphid

On this page: Identification & Distribution Other aphids on the same host Damage & Control

Identification & Distribution

Adult apterae of Greenidea artocarpi (see first picture below) are rather elongate pear-shaped, shiny brown or greenish with diffuse darker dorsal markings. Their antennae are brown gradually becoming darker towards the apex, and are about 1.1 times the body length. The terminal process is about 1.7-2.5 times the length of the base of antennal segment VI. Antennal segment III is 2.2-2.4 times longer than antennal segment IV (cf. Greenidea ficicola, which has segment III 1.6-2.1 times longer than antennal segment IV). The longest hair on segment III is about 2.5-2.7 times the basal diameter of that segment. The rostrum reaches almost the middle of the body, with the apical rostral segment 1.7-1.9 times as long as the second hind tarsal segment. The femora are pale brown like the head, but the tibiae are a little darker. The siphunculi are dark brown to black with the base paler, long and slender and curved outwards, 0.48-0.55 times the body length (cf. Greenidea ficicola, which has siphunculi 0.29-0.42 times longer than the body). Hairs on the siphunculi are numerous, with the longest about 2.2-2.5 times as long as the basal diameter of the siphunculi. The cauda has a distinct median process and bears about 8 very fine and long hairs. The body length of adult Greenidea artocarpi apterae is 2.1-2.4 mm.

Image above by permission, copyright Sunil Joshi & Poorani, J. Aphids of Karnataka (accessed 12/2/20).

The alate of Greenidea artocarpi (see second picture above) has the head, thorax, and appendages brown and the eyes red. The abdomen is dusky green with dark transverse bands over most of tergites III-VII. The antennae are about 1.29 times as long as the body, with antennal segment III bearing about 35 transversely oval secondary rhinaria. The siphunculi are black, and about 0.75-0.80 times the body length. Immatures (see first picture below) have a brownish green head and thorax, a green abdomen and brownish green siphunculi.

The second image below shows a clarified mount of on aptera of Greenidea artocarpi.

Image above by permission, copyright Sunil Joshi & Poorani, J. Aphids of Karnataka (accessed 12/2/20).

The jackfruit aphid (Greenidea artocarpi) feeds on the undersides of young leaves, usually near the main trunk, of various breadfruit and jackfruit (Artocarpus) spp. Life cycle information is not available, but most Greenidea species are presumed to be mainly anholocyclic since sexuales have not been found. The species is found in southern India and Sri Lanka. It has also been recorded from south-east Asia, but Blackman in Aphids on Worlds Plants notes these records should probably be referred to Greenidea ficicola.

 

Other aphids on the same host

Greenidea artocarpi has been recorded on 3-4 breadfruit and jackfruit species (Artocarpus altilis, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Artocarpus incisa, Artocarpus integrifolia).

 

Damage and control

There seems to be rather little written about Greenidea artocarpi as a pest of breadfruit and jackfruit. Vikaspedia (the official Indian government website) indicates that direct feeding damage can result from heavy infestations, and sooty moulds may grow on the deposited honeydew. However, Prakash et al. (2009) consider aphids (both Greenidea artocarpi and Aphis aurantii) only a minor problem for jackfruit cultivation.

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Sunil Joshi & J. Poorani, and Roger Blackman for permitting us to use their images on this page.

We have used the keys and species accounts of Raychaudhuri (1956), together with those of Roger Blackman & Victor Eastop in Aphids on Worlds Plants. We fully acknowledge these authors and those listed in the reference sections as the source for the (summarized) taxonomic information we have presented. Any errors in identification or information are ours alone, and we would be very grateful for any corrections. For assistance on the terms used for aphid morphology we suggest the figure provided by Blackman & Eastop (2006).

Useful weblinks

References

  • Prakash, O. (2009). Artocarpus heterophyllus. Phcog. Rev. 3(6), 353-358. Full text

  • Raychaudhuri, D.N. (1956). Revision of Greenidea and related genera (Homoptera, Aphididae). Zoologische Verhandelingen 31 Full text