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Lachninae : Lachnini : Lachnus roboris


Identification & Distribution:

Lachnus roboris apterae are shining blackish brown. The antennae are quite short - for apterae 0.4-0.5 times the body length. The dorsum has only a few short hairs (cf. Lachnus longirostris & Lachnus pallipes which have the abdominal dorsum densely haired with long, fine-pointed hairs). There are two conical tubercles on the front of the mesosternum. The siphuncular cones are large and dark, with their maximum diameter exceeding the length of the second hind tarsal segment (cf. Lachnus pallipes & Lachnus longirostris which have smaller paler siphuncular cones with their maximum diameter less than the length of the second hind tarsal segment). The body length of an adult Lachnus roboris aptera is 2.5-5.5 mm.

Lachnus roboris alates have the forewing membrane pigmented except for four clear patches (hence the common name 'variegated' oak aphid). The clear area between Rs and media vein (M) only extends half way to the media (cf. Lachnus longorostris where the the clear area between Rs and media extends to almost meet the media.)

Variegated oak aphids are found on twigs and small branches of oak (Quercus sp.) and sometimes sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa). Lachnus roboris do not host alternate. Apterous oviparae and large alate males occur in September-October and produce eggs which overwinter. They are present in Europe, the Mediterranean region and parts of the Middle East.

The taxonomy of Lachnus roboris is rather uncertain and Blackman & Eastop (1994) suggest that it is a complex of species with different karyotypes and host plants. In which case the species found on Castanea may be a different species. However, Dixon & Thieme (2007) record Lachnus roboris as feeding on either Quercus or Castanea.


Biology & Ecology:

Life cycle

The overwintering eggs of Lachnus roboris start hatching as early as March, long before bud break, with the young nymphs feeding on small twigs.

Populations then build up over spring and summmer reaching their peak in late summer and autumn.

Sexual forms are produced in October - the image below shows a winged male Lachnus roboris about to copulate with an oviparous female.

The fertilized female then lays the reddish brown eggs in dense aggregations, as shown below, which darken over time. Lubiarz (2008) recorded that over 500 eggs could be laid on one twig, with 19-71 eggs per 1 cm of shoot.

We have only found Lachnus roboris< on sweet chestnut (see picture below) when it is also present on nearby oak trees, which suggests chestnut may function in some way as an overflow host when numbers on oak reach very high levels.

Ant attendance

Lachnus roboris is nearly always attended by ants, usually by wood ants (Formica spp.). The ants consume the large amounts of honeydew produced by this species and in return (at least in the case of wood ants) will actively defend the aphids against predators.

Natural enemies

Lachnus roboris also have another defense against predators - they kick out with the hind legs.

Blazhievskaya (1980) reports that the eggs are subject to attack by predators, particularly the coccinellid Adalia bipunctata. Out of 6281 eggs examined in autumn, 25% were destroyed by birds and coccinellids and 19% by fungal infections, while 56% appeared normal. However, only 30% actually hatched. We have also noted high rates of mortality of overwintering eggs.


Other aphids on same host:

  • Lachnus roboris has been recorded from at least 17 Quercus species.

    Blackman & Eastop list about 225 species of aphids as feeding on oaks worldwide, and provides formal identification keys for aphids on Quercus. Of the more than 150 oak species listed by Blackman & Eastop, Lachnus roboris has been recorded on 17: Quercus acutissima, calliprinos, cerris, coccifera, faginea, frainetto, ilex, infectoria, lusitanica, macrolepis, neomairei, petraea, pubescens, pyrenaica, robur, suber, and trojana.

    Blackman & Eastop list 34 aphid species on common or pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) worldwide (Show World list). Of those aphid species, Baker (2015) lists 15 as occurring in Britain (Show British list).

  • Lachnus roboris has been recorded from 1 Castanea species (Castanea sativa).

    Blackman & Eastop list 10 species of aphid as feeding on sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa) worldwide, and provide formal identification keys (Show World list). Of those aphid species, Baker (2015) lists 5 as occurring in Britain (Show British list).

Identifications & Acknowledgements

Whilst we make every effort to ensure that identifications are correct, we cannot absolutely warranty their accuracy. We have mostly made identifications from high resolution photos of living specimens, along with host plant identity. In the great majority of cases, identifications have been confirmed by microscopic examination of preserved specimens. We have used the keys and species accounts of Blackman & Eastop (1994) and Blackman & Eastop (2006) supplemented with Blackman (1974), Stroyan (1977), Stroyan (1984), Blackman & Eastop (1984), Heie (1980-1995), Dixon & Thieme (2007) and Blackman (2010). We fully acknowledge these authors as the source for the (summarized) taxonomic information we have presented. Any errors in identification or information are ours alone, and we would be very grateful for any corrections. For assistance on the terms used for aphid morphology we suggest the figure provided by Blackman & Eastop (2006).

Useful weblinks


  • Blazhievskaya, A. P. (1980). The variegated oak aphid and ants. (In Russian). Zashchita Rastenii 1980 No. 1 pp. 37. Abstract

  • Dixon & Thieme (2007) Aphids on deciduous trees. Naturalist's Handbooks 29. Richmond.

  • Lubiarz, M. (1980). Dynamics of numbers and bionomy of Lachnus roboris (L.) on pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) in natural and degraded landscape. Aphids and other Hemipterous Insects 13, 129-135. Full text