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Aphididae : Aphidinae : Macrosiphini : Macrosiphoniella
 

 

Genus Macrosiphoniella [Macrosiphini]

Macrosiphoniella are green or brown aphids often covered with a thin layer of wax powder over most of the body. Their eyes are red. There is no median tubercle and the antennal tubercles are usually well developed with diverging inner sides. The antennae are normally longer than the body. The abdomen normally has crescent shaped sclerites in front of the siphunculi. Dorsal body hairs on many species are on distinctly visible scleroites. Siphunculi are rather short and thick, cylindrical or tapering, with reticulations on the apical 25-75%; the terminal flange is small or absent. The cauda is long and finger shaped.

There are about 110 species of Macrosiphoniella worldwide, mostly in the northern hemisphere. There is no host alternation and all species feed on daisies (Asteraceae), most on species of the division Anthemideae. Many Macrosiphoniella species feed on just one genus of this group, some on just one species. Sexual forms occur in autumn and eggs hibernate on low parts of plants or on dead leaves. When disturbed the aphids tend to drop off their plant and 'play dead'.

 

Macrosiphoniella absinthii (Absinthe aphid) Europe, North Africa, Asia, North & South America

The adult apterae of Macrosiphoniella absinthii (see first picture below) are reddish-brown and partly wax-powdered. The head, antennae, legs, siphunculi and cauda are black, and there is a black spot in the centre of the abdomen which is highlighted by a white surround of powdered wax. The spinal body hairs and some of the pleural body hairs of Macrosiphoniella absinthii are placed on dark scleroites, some of which are fused into larger sclerites of cross bands (see first micrograph below). The hind tibiae are black from the base to apex. The siphunculi are very thick and short, 0.13-0.16 times the body length and 1.0 to 1.1 times the length of the cauda; they are reticulated on their apical 48-60%. The body length of the adult Macrosiphoniella absinthii aptera is 1.7-2.5 mm.

The alate viviparous female (see second picture above) is much like the apterous viviparous female, but the sclerites are less developed and the siphunculi are more slender.

The absinthe aphid does not host alternate. Sexual forms (apterous or alate males) occur in autumn. It feeds on the upper parts of absinthe (Artemisia absinthium) and related species. It is not usually ant attended. Macrosiphoniella absinthii occurs in northern and central Europe eastward to Siberia and Iran. Macrosiphoniella absinthii is also found in north Africa and the Mediterranean area, and has been introduced to the USA, Canada and Argentina.

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Macrosiphoniella artemisiae (Mugwort aphid) Europe, North Africa, North Asia, North America

Macrosiphoniella artemisiae apterae are of moderate size, greyish-green and wax powdered. The antennae and legs are mostly black, except for the base of antennal segment 3 and the basal part of the front femur which are brown. The siphunculi and cauda are entirely black (cf. Macrosiphoniella oblonga which has the cauda green). The body hairs are not placed on dark scleroites, and the sclerites in front of the siphunculi are very pale and hardly visible. The siphunculi are 0.6-0.9 times the length of the cauda (cf. Macrosiphoniella oblonga which has the siphunculi 1.0-1.4 times longer than the cauda). The body length of apterae is 2.3-3.6 mm.

The Macrosiphoniella artemisiae alate is much like the aptera but the marginal sclerites are well developed.

The mugwort aphid lives on the upper parts of mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) especially amongst the flowers. Sexual forms occur in the autumn, and the species overwinters as eggs. Macrosiphoniella artemisiae is found in Europe, north Asia, North Africa and North America.

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Macrosiphoniella asteris (Bronze sea aster aphid) Europe

Adult apterae of Macrosiphoniella asteris are reddish brown suffused with green with a bronze sheen and sometimes a little wax powdering (see pictures below - although these may be oviparae). Dorsal hairs and their black scleroites are sparse and mainly arranged in longitudinal rows. The apical segment of the rostrum (RIV+V) is rather short, only 0.7-0.8 times the length of the second hind tarsal segment; it is not stiletto shaped as in other Macrosiphoniella, but has slightly convex margins. The antesiphuncular sclerites are rather large. The black siphunculi are 1.0-1.2 times the length of the cauda, which is dusky and paler than the siphunculi. The body length of adult apterae is 2.3-3.1 mm.

The alate vivipara has well developed marginal sclerites, and the spinal scleroites are fused in to cross bands on some tergites. The ovipara is similar to the viviparous female, and the apterous male is small and dark.

Macrosiphoniella asteris lives only on sea aster (Aster tripolium), feeding on the upper parts of the stems and the flowers. The species is found in coastal areas over most of Europe.

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Macrosiphoniella glabra (Shining green tarragon aphid) Western USA

Adult apterae of Macrosiphoniella glabra are shining shamrock green without wax powder (cf. Macrosiphoniella ludovicianae, which is dusted with greyish white wax). The siphunculi are mainly black but greenish basally, and the cauda and anal plate dusky green (cf. Macrosiphoniella artemisiae, which has a black cauda). The antennae are mainly black, but paler on segments I, II and the base of III. They are about 1.4-1.5 the body length with the terminal process about 3.0-3.1 times the base of antennal segment VI. There are 2-5 secondary rhinaria on antennal segment III. The rostrum reaches the third pair of coxae, with the apical rostral segment (RIV+V) shorter than the second hind tarsal segment. The abdomen is without visible sclerotization, but there are sometimes dusky areas at the bases of 6 rows of dorsal hairs. The legs are mostly black, apart from the basal half of the femora. The siphunculi are 1.4-1.7 times the caudal length (cf. Macrosiphoniella nitida, in Europe which has shorter siphunculi at 0.9-1.25 times the length of the cauda). The reticulated area on the siphunculi is unusually long at one third or more of the length. The cauda is tapering, or with a slight constriction near the base, and bears 3-4 lateral pairs of hairs. The body length of adult Macrosiphoniella glabra apterae is 1.8-2.3 mm.

Image above copyright Andrew Jensen, under a creative common licence.

The alate Macrosiphoniella glabra vivipara has a yellowish brown head and thorax, but is otherwise much like the apterous vivipara, except that the rostrum reaches the second pair of coxae. Antennal segment III has 10-15 secondary rhinaria which are weak and irregular in size.

Macrosiphoniella glabra lives singly or in small colonies on leaves and flowerheads of Russian tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus dracunculoides). Palmer (1952) considered this species rare and difficult to find, but Jensen in Aphidtrek reports he has found this "fast moving charismatic little insect" everywhere where he found its host plant. Macrosiphoniella glabra is monoecious holocyclic, with oviparae and apterous males appearing in September-October. It is a native American species, restricted to western USA from Washington to New Mexico.

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Macrosiphoniella ludovicianae (White sage aphid) North America

Adult apterae of Macrosiphoniella ludovicianae (see first picture below) are green or yellowish green, dusted with greyish white wax. The antennae are dusky yellow on segments I & II, and on the base of segment III, and blackish or black beyond the base of III. The rostrum reaches beyond the third pair of coxae, with the apical rostral segment (RIV+V) roughly equal in length to the second hind tarsal segment (HTII). The femora have the apical regions dusky, much like the tibiae (cf. Macrosiphoniella paucisetosa in Canada, which have the femora entirely pale contrasting with wholly dark tibiae). The siphunculi are mostly black, but with a dusky base, and are distinctly longer than the cauda (cf. Macrosiphoniella artemisiae and Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria, both of which have all black siphunculi which are 0.6-0.9 times the caudal length). The cauda and anal plate are dusky greenish-yellow (cf. Macrosiphoniella artemisiae and Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria, which both have a black cauda). The cauda is spatulate, bearing 7-8 lateral pairs of hairs and 4-5 dorsal ones. The body length of adult Macrosiphoniella ludovicianae apterae is 2.0-2.8 mm.

First image above copyright Jesse Rorabaugh, no rights reserved;
second image copyright Andrew Jensen, under a creative common licence.

Alate viviparous females of Macrosiphoniella ludovicianae (see second picture above) are similar in colouration to the apterous forms except that the head and thorax are dusky-green, and the hairs are slightly shorter.

Macrosiphoniella ludovicianae is monoecious holocyclic on the leaves of Artemisia ludoviciana, but has also been recorded from common mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris). The species is generally common in a wide range of habitats. Oviparae and alate males occur in October. This native North American species is widely distributed in USA and Canada.

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Macrosiphoniella millefolii (Yarrow aphid) Europe, North America

Apterae of Macrosiphoniella millefolii are of moderate size, green and wax powdered except for a spinal stripe on the abdomen and antesiphuncular spots. The antennae, siphunculi and cauda are black; the legs are mostly black except for the basal part of the front femur which is brown. The antennae are 1.0-1.2 times the body length with the terminal process 3.7-4.3 times the length of the basal part. Dark sclerites are present on the sides and just in front of the siphunculi. There are numerous long body hairs on the dorsum positioned on dark scleroites; some of these may be fused into larger sclerites.The siphunculi are 0.12-0.15 times the length of the body and 0.8-0.9 times the caudal length.

The yarrow aphid does not host alternate and feeds on yarrow (Achillea millefolium). It has a sexual stage in its life cycle. It is common and widespread in Europe and North America.

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Macrosiphoniella oblonga (Slender mugwort aphid) Europe, North Asia

Macrosiphoniella oblonga is a distinctive rather elongated apple-green aphid with a darker green spinal stripe. The body hairs are not placed on dark scleroites. The antennae are mostly pale or dusky but with the apices of segments 3 and 4 darker, and segments 5 and 6 dark. The legs are long, thin and pale. The siphunculi are greenish with brownish tips; they are thinnest over the distal one third but broader towards the apex. The siphunculi are 1.0-1.4 times longer than the length of the cauda (cf. Macrosiphoniella artemisiae which has the siphunculi 0.6-0.9 times longer than the cauda). The cauda is green (cf. Macrosiphoniella artemisiae which has the cauda black). The body length of Macrosiphoniella oblonga is 3.0-5.1 mm.

The alate Macrosiphoniella oblonga is elongate bodied with the siphunculi longer than the cauda.

The slender mugwort aphid can be found scattered on the undersides of the lower leaves of mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) and cultivated chrysanthemum species. It does not form large colonies. Sexual forms can be found in autumn, and the species overwinters as eggs. The male is apterous and very slender. Macrosiphoniella oblonga occurs in Europe and much of north Asia.

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Macrosiphoniella persequens (Pale green tansy aphid) Europe

Adult apterae of Macrosiphoniella persequens are green with a darker green spinal stripe and bright red eyes. The antennae are light brown, but with dark apices to the segments (cf. Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria and Macrosiphoniella millefolii, which have mainly black antennae). The apparent light brown shading around and between the siphunculi probably results from subcuticular fat bodies. The apical rostral segment (RIV+V) is only 0.7-0.8 times the length of the second hind tarsal segment (HTII) (cf Macrosiphoniella sejuncta in which RIV+V is 1.1-1.3 times as long as HTII). The body hairs are not placed on dark scleroites. The legs are green-brown, with the distal ends of the tibiae and the tarsi black. The siphunculi are pale with dark tips, have reticulation over the distal 32-42% of length, and are 1.1-2.0 times the length of the cauda. The cauda has 24-30 hairs. The body length of the adult Macrosiphoniella persequens aptera is 4.2-5.2 mm.

The alate Macrosiphoniella persequens is very like the aptera, with no abdominal markings and with very thin siphunculi. Antennal segment III bears 50-59 secondary rhinaria spread along the whole segment. The ovipara has somewhat thickened hind tibiae, and the apterous male is small and dark green or pink.

Macrosiphoniella persequens feeds on the undersides of the lower leaves of tansy (Tancetum vulgare) (albeit we found it as an accidental on mugwort, Artemisia vulgaria - see below). Macrosiphoniella persequens has also been recorded from Pyrethrum millefoliatum. It does not host alternate. Sexual forms occur in autumn, and eggs are deposited on fallen foliage and mosses between plants. Macrosiphoniella persequens is found over most of Europe - but not Portugal, Norway, Italy, or the Baltic republics.

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Macrosiphoniella pulvera (Powdered sea wormwood aphid) Europe, Asia

Adult apterae of Macrosiphoniella pulvera are greyish-green, or greyish white, and are heavily wax-powdered. The antennae are pale on the base of the third antennal segment, but they darken distally. The base of the sixth antennal segment is 1.1-1.3 times the length of the fused apical rostral segments (RV+V). The longest hair on the third antennal segment is 0.7-1.0 times the basal diameter of that segment. The fused apical rostral segments are 1.1-1.4 times the second hind tarsal segment. The siphunculi are pale basally, but dark or black on about the distal half. The cauda is dusky. The body length of Macrosiphoniella pulvera apterae is 1.9-2.9 mm.

The powdered sea wormwood aphid is largely restricted to sea wormwood (Artemisia maritimum) as its host, although it is occasionally found on other Artemisia species. They appear to mainly feed on the small stems, although some authorities record them as feeding on the leaves. Oviparae and small apterous males are produced in September. Macrosiphoniella pulvera are found on the east and the south coast of England, the west coast of Ireland and much of Europe (excluding Italy, Spain & Portugal) and eastwards into Asia.

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Macrosiphoniella sanborni (Large chrysanthemum aphid) Cosmopolitan

Adult apterae of Macrosiphoniella sanborni (see first picture below) are shiny with no wax powdering, and coloured dark red-brown to blackish brown. The antennae are dark except for the base of antennal segment III, and have 5-28 secondary rhinaria usually distributed over the entire length of antennal segment III (cf. Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria which has secondary rhinaria on antennal segment III restricted to the basal 0.6 or less). The base of antennal segment VI is 0.7-0.9 times the length of the apical rostral segment (RIV+V). The siphunculi are completely black (cf. Macrosiphoniella oblonga which has siphunculi which are mainly dark brown but paler at the base). The siphunculi are relatively short and thick, shorter than the black cauda, and with reticulation on the distal 0.6-0.8 of their length. The body length of adult Macrosiphoniella sanborni apterae is 1.0-2.3 mm. Immatures (see second picture below) are similarly coloured to the adults.

First image above copyright Marko Šćiban, all rights reserved.
Second image above copyright Jim Baker, North Carolina State University, Bugwood.org under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 License.

The alate Macrosiphoniella sanborni is dark brown with well developed scleroites and marginal and antesiphuncular sclerites. The spinal scleroites on abdominal tergites I-III are fused into short cross bands.

The chrysanthemum aphid is found on cultivated florists' chrysanthemums, namely Paris daisy ( Argyranthemum frutescens), Indian chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum indicum), and florist's daisy (Chrysanthemum mortifolium). Macrosiphoniella sanborni is of east Asian origin, where it also occurs on other Asteraceae such as Anthemis, Artemisia, and Aster. Sexual morphs are not known, and reproduction is entirely parthenogenetic. The distribution is cosmopolitan.

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Macrosiphoniella sejuncta (Large mottled yarrow aphid) Europe, West Asia

Adult Macrosiphoniella sejuncta apterae are usually green mottled with brownish red, with no wax powdering (see first picture below). The antennae are rather dark, but with a very short pale section at the base of segment III. The first tarsal segment has only 3 hairs. Macrosiphoniella sejuncta siphunculi are greenish brown to brown with paler bases and the cauda is a pale greenish brown. The siphunculi are very thin, slightly swollen at the base, slightly widened at the apex, have reticulation on the apical 48-69%, and are 1.7 to 2.2 times the length of the cauda (cf. Macrosiphoniella millefolii which has siphunculi which are 0.8-0.9 times the length of the cauda). The body length of the adult aptera is 2.5-3.1 mm.

The alate is much like the apterous viviparous female, but is more slender and has well developed marginal sclerites as well as antesiphuncular sclerites (see second picture above). The third antennal segment has 30-40 rhinaria. The ovipara is similar to the apterous vivipara, but the cauda is slightly thicker and blunt, and the basal half of the hind tibia is swollen. The male is wingless and small with a body length of only about 2 mm.

Macrosiphoniella sejuncta feeds on the older leaves close to the ground of yarrow (Achillea millefolium). The best way to find these aphids is to shake the host-plants over a sheet placed on the soil under the leaves. The species does not host alternate, but remains all year on yarrow - overwintering in the egg stage. Sexual forms can be found in September and October. The large mottled yarrow aphid is found across Europe east to Western Siberia.

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Macrosiphoniella subterranea (Masked ox-eye aphid) Europe, North America

Adult apterae of Macrosiphoniella subterranea (see first picture below) are reddish brown with a rather thick coating of greyish wax except for clearly defined patches on the mid-dorsum and around the bases of the siphunculi. The third antennal segment is mostly pale, and has 10-22 secondary rhinaria. The legs and antennae of Macrosiphoniella subterranea have contrasting pale and black sections. The siphunculi and cauda are black, and the siphunculi are 0.9 -1.15 times the length of the cauda.

Images copyright Graham Hall, all rights reserved.

The alate Macrosiphoniella subterranea (see second picture above) appears to lack the wax-free patch on the mid-dorsum, but is wax free around the bases of the siphunculi.

Macrosiphoniella subterranea usually feeds on the undersides of the leaves of ox-eye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare) and shasta daisy (Leucanthemum x superba). Sexual forms develop in October and November, and the aphid overwinters in the egg stage. It is rare in Britain, being previously only found in Cumbria and Hertfordshire, but is widely distributed in continental Europe and is also found in North America.

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Macrosiphoniella sunshine (Oregon sunshine aphid) Western USA

Adult apterae (see first picture below of a fundatrix) of Macrosiphoniella sunshine are light green, with a darker green (i.e. wax free) longitudinal spinal stripe from the mesonotum to abdominal tergite VII, and a darker green patch around each siphuncular base (cf. Macrosiphoniella ludovicianae on Artemisia, where the dorsum appears uniformly green). The antennae are black, and on segment III bear 1253 secondary rhinaria from near the segment base to about its mid-point. The antennal terminal process is 3.235.68 times the base of antennal segment VI. The apical rostral segment (RIV+V) is 1.191.58 times the second hind tarsal segment (HTII) (cf. Macrosiphoniella ludovicianae on Artemisia, which has RIV+V 0.750.94 times HTII). The legs are light greenish brown with darker apices to the femora and tibiae, and dark tarsi. The siphunculi are pale basally and brown to black distally, with distal reticulation over more than one third of their length (cf. Macrosiphum euphorbiae on Eriophyllum, which has distal reticulation over less than one quarter of their length). The siphunculi are 1.101.46 times the caudal length. The cauda is pale and often pointed, with 1526 hairs. The body length of Macrosiphoniella sunshine is about 1.5-2.8 mm.

First image above copyright Andrew Jensen, second image copyright Jim Morefield,
both under a creative common licence.

The alate Macrosiphoniella sunshine is similarly coloured to the aptera, but with a light brown head and thorax. There are 4056 secondary rhinaria on the whole length of antennal segment III, and sometimes 16 rhinaria on segment IV.

Macrosiphoniella sunshine is monoecious holocyclic on the flower stems and leaves of Oregon sunshine (Eriophyllum lanatum, see second picture above). The biology of this aphid is briefly described by Jensen (2020). The fundatrices occur in April (possibly in March in warmer parts of its range) feeding on the overwintered leaves. Aphids then move on to developing flower stems. Alate viviparous females are not common. After flowering, they once again live on the leaves at ground level until sexuales are produced in late fall. Oviparae occur in October, but so far no males have been observed. Macrosiphoniella sunshine occurs in western states of the USA.

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Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria (Tansy aphid) Europe, North Africa, Asia, North & South America

Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria apterae (see first picture below) are large wax powdered green or pinkish-brown aphids. The antennae are black including the base of the third segment (cf. Macrosiphoniella artemisiae which has the base of antennal segment 3 brown). The legs, siphunculi and cauda are also black. There are no body hairs on dark scleroites. The antennae are 1.0-1.3 times the body length with the terminal process 2.9-3.5 times the length of the base of the last antennal segment. The siphunculi are 0.1-0.2 times the body length and 0.6-0.9 times the length of the cauda. The body length of apterae is 3.2-4.1 mm. The female alate (see second picture below) is much like the Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria aptera.

The principal host plant of Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria is Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare), but the range of reserve hosts seems greater than in most Macrosiphoniella, including records from other Tanacetum species, species of Achillea, Anthemis, Artemisia, Aster, Bidens, Chamaemelum, Chrysanthemum, Dendranthema and Matricaria, and also Salvia officinalis (common sage). Colonies occur on upper parts of stem and between the flowers. Eggs are laid on the stem and withered leaves. Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria is common and widespread throughout Europe extending into North Africa, parts of Asia and the Americas.

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Macrosiphoniella tapuskae (Large green yarrow aphid) Europe, Asia, North Africa, North America

Adult apterae of Macrosiphoniella tapuskae are pale to dark green (see first picture below) often with a darker green area on the dorsal abdomen between the siphunculi and a dark spot in front of each siphuncular base. A reddish-brown form has also been observed (see Invertebrados Insectarium Virtual). They have previously been described as 'not wax-powdered', and those we found in southern England had no wax powder. However, specimens identified as Macrosiphoniella tapuskae on Achillea from Serbia have heavy wax deposits (see second picture below), as have those found in Spain (see Invertebrados Insectarium Virtual). The antennae are rather dark with the terminal process 4.2-5.3 times the length of the base of antennal segment VI. The body hairs are quite long and not placed on distinct scleroites (cf. Macrosiphoniella sejuncta, which has body hairs on small dark scleroites). The siphunculi are mainly (light or dark) brown with paler bases, very slender with dilated base and apex, reticulated on the apical 12-18% and 1.8-2.3 timesas long as the cauda (cf. Macrosiphoniella millefolii, which have siphunculi 0.8-0.9 times the length of the cauda). The cauda frequently has more than 19 hairs. The body length of adult Macrosiphoniella tapuskae apterae is 2.0-2.5 mm.

Second image above copyright Mihajlo Tomić, all rights reserved.

The alate Macrosiphoniella tapuskae has mainly dark siphunculi but with a paler thickened base.

Macrosiphoniella tapuskae most commonly feeds on yarrow (Achillea millefolium), wild chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), pineappleweed (Matricaria discoidea) or scentless mayweed (Tripleurospermum inodorum), but can also be found on other genera within the tribe Anthemidae. On yarrow it usually feeds on the lower leaves and is said to prefer plants growing in dry sandy places. It is found throughout Europe eastward through Russia into central Asia, North Africa and North America.

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Macrosiphoniella usquertensis (Masked yarrow aphid) Europe, Canada

Adult apterae of Macrosiphoniella usquertensis are brownish with a thick coating of greyish wax except for clearly defined patches on the mid-dorsum and around the bases of the siphunculi - remarkably similar to the wax pattern of Macrosiphoniella subterranea on ox-eye daisy. The third antennal segment is mostly pale, and has 2-11 secondary rhinaria (cf. Macrosiphoniella subterranea which has 10-22 secondary rhinaria on antennal segment III) . The legs and antennae of Macrosiphoniella usquertensis have contrasting pale and black sections. The siphunculi and cauda are black, and the siphunculi are 0.8 -1.0 times the length of the cauda (cf. Macrosiphoniella subterranea the siphunculi of which are 0.9-1.15 times the length of the cauda).

The alate Macrosiphoniella usquertensis (see second picture above) lacks the large wax-free patch on the mid-dorsum, but is wax free around the bases of the siphunculi. It has 20-35 secondary rhinaria on antennal segment III, and the siphunculi are similar in length to or slightly shorter than the cauda (cf. Macrosiphoniella subterranea the siphunculi of which are usually longer than the cauda). Oviparae are reddish and males are alate.

Macrosiphoniella usquertensis feeds on yarrow (Achillea millefolium) and other Achillea species, and occasionally field wormwood (Artemisia campestris). It is mainly found near the tips of the lower leaves, and feeding results in premature senescence of the leaves. Oviparae and alate males develop in autumn. The masked yarrow aphid is found throughout Europe, and has been recorded in Canada.

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Macrosiphoniella yomogicola (Japanese mugwort aphid, Mugwort princess aphid) East Asia

Adult apterae of Macrosiphoniella yomogicola (see first picture below) are grey-green to blackish or orange to rust brown, usually with dark cross-bands on the dorsal abdomen. These cross-bands are sometimes much-reduced and broken into segmental groups of sclerites. (cf. Macrosiphoniella kuwayamai & Macrosiphoniella hikosanensis, both on Artemisia, neither of which have any dark cross-bands or groups of sclerites on the dorsal abdomen). The antennae, legs, siphunculi and cauda are all dark. Antennal segment III has 8-13 small or moderate secondary rhinaria near its base, or on the basal one third. The rostrum reaches the hind coxae. The apical rostral segment is much narrower and somewhat shorter than the penultimate. Abdominal tergites II-IV each have at least 50 long, fine hairs arranged irregularly (see first picture below where long hairs on tergites are clearly visible). Postsiphuncular sclerites are small or absent. The black siphunculi are reticulate over the distal half, at most about as long as cauda, and without hairs (cf. Macrosiphoniella chaetosiphon, which has several long hairs on the siphunculi). The cauda has more than 20 hairs. The body length of adult Macrosiphoniella yomogicola apterae is 2.0-3.2 mm. Immature grey-green apterae are pale green, immature orange-brown apterae appear to be yellow (or these may mature to yellow adults).

First image above by permission, copyright Akihide Koguchi, all rights reserved.
Second image copyright Watanabe under a cc by-nc 4.0 licence.

The alate vivipara has 21-28 small circular secondary rhinaria on antennal segment III, mostly in a row on the basal two-thirds or more. Segment IV lacks rhinaria. The siphunculi are black, rather slender, somewhat longer than the cauda, narrowed on the distal half, not expanded at the base, reticulate on the distal two-thirds, and sometimes slightly curved. The cauda is also black, gradually tapering and bluntly pointed apically. The legs are very long and slender.

Macrosiphoniella yomogicola is monoecious holocyclic on several Artemisia spp., especially mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris). It has also been recorded on Chrysanthemum indicum. Unusually for a member of the Macrosiphini, Macrosiphoniella yomogicola is usually attended by ants, sometimes under earthen shelters (Miyazaki 1971). It is found in Japan, China, and east Siberia.

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Acknowledgements

Whilst we make every effort to ensure that identifications are correct, we cannot absolutely warranty their accuracy. We have mostly made identifications from high resolution photos of living specimens, along with host plant identity. In the great majority of cases, identifications have been confirmed by microscopic examination of preserved specimens. We have used the keys and species accounts of Blackman & Eastop (1994) and Blackman & Eastop (2006) supplemented with Blackman (1974), Stroyan (1977), Stroyan (1984), Blackman & Eastop (1984), Heie (1980-1995), Dixon & Thieme (2007) and Blackman (2010). We fully acknowledge these authors as the source for the (summarized) taxonomic information we have presented. Any errors in identification or information are ours alone, and we would be very grateful for any corrections. For assistance on the terms used for aphid morphology we suggest the figure provided by Blackman & Eastop (2006).

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References

  • Blackman, R.L. & Eastop, V.F. (2006). Aphids on the world's herbaceous plants and shrubs. Vols 1 and 2. John Wiley & Sons.

  • Heie, O.E. (1980-1995). The Aphidoidea, Hemiptera, of Fennoscandia and Denmark. (Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica) E.J. Brill, London