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Prociphilus pini

Hawthorn-pine root aphid

On this page: Identification & Distribution Biology & Ecology Other aphids on the same host Damage & Control

Identification & Distribution

Overwintering eggs on hawthorn hatch in spring to give fundatrices which , together with their progeny, curl and yellow hawthorn (Crataegus) leaves. The progeny all develop to alates, which have a light green to greyish green abdomen. These migrate to the secondary host, the roots of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) and related Pinus species.

Guest images copyright Alan Watson Featherstone all rights reserved.

The adult apterae of Prociphilus pini on the secondary host are cream or pale pinkish and are covered with dense wax wool. In October winged sexuparae (see pictures above) develop on the pine roots and migrate back to hawthorn. The head has paired wax gland plates showing as clear areas between antennae and/or on the posterior part of head. The number of secondary rhinaria on the antennae is diagnostic - segment III: 15-32, IV: 5-12; V: 2-11; VI: 0. The body length of the sexupara is 1.6-2.3 mm.

Sexuparae are produced on pine roots in October, but British populations seem to mainly persist throughout the winter on pine, and it is less commonly found on its primary hosts, hawthorn. Prociphilus pini occurs in the British Isles, and in north-west and central Europe.

 

Other aphids on same host:

Blackman & Eastop list 16 species of aphid as feeding on common hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) worldwide, and provide formal identification keys.

Of those aphid species, Baker (2015) lists 15 as occurring in Britain: Aphis fabae, Aphis gossypii Aphis pomi, Aphis spiraecola, Aulacorthum solani, Dysaphis angelicae, Dysaphis apiifolia, Dysaphis crataegi, Dysaphis lauberti, Dysaphis ranunculi, Ovatus crataegarius, Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae, Ovatus insitus, Prociphilus pini and Rhopalosiphum rufulum.

Prociphilus pini and its subspecies have been recorded from at least 5 Pinus species ( Pinus mugo, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus contorta, Pinus echinata, Pinus rigida).

Blackman & Eastop list 30 species of aphid as feeding on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) worldwide, and provide formal identification keys.

Of those aphid species, Baker (2015) lists 15 as occurring in Britain: Cinara brauni, Cinara nuda, Cinara pilosa, Cinara pinea, Cinara pini, Cinara pinihabitans, Essigella californica, Eulachnus agilis, Eulachnus brevipilosus, Eulachnus rileyi, Pineus orientalis, Pineus pini, Pineus strobi, Prociphilus pini, and Schizolachnus pineti.

 

Damage and control

Colonies of wax-covered apterae of this species are a common occurrence on the fine roots of container-grown Scots Pine saplings in British nurseries.

Acknowledgements

Whilst we make every effort to ensure that identifications are correct, we cannot absolutely warranty their accuracy. We have mostly made identifications from high resolution photos of living specimens, along with host plant identity. In the great majority of cases, identifications have been confirmed by microscopic examination of preserved specimens. We have used the keys and species accounts of Blackman & Eastop (1994) and Blackman & Eastop (2006) supplemented with Blackman (1974), Stroyan (1977), Stroyan (1984), Blackman & Eastop (1984), Heie (1980-1995), Dixon & Thieme (2007) and Blackman (2010). We fully acknowledge these authors as the source for the (summarized) taxonomic information we have presented. Any errors in identification or information are ours alone, and we would be very grateful for any corrections. For assistance on the terms used for aphid morphology we suggest the figure provided by Blackman & Eastop (2006).

Useful weblinks

References

  •  Carter, C. I. & Danielsson, R. (1993). New and additional records of gall-forming aphids of the family Pemphigidae in Britain. Entomologist 112 (1), 99-104.