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Greenideinae : Schoutedenii : Schoutedenia emblica
 

 

Schoutedenia emblica

Indian gooseberry aphid

On this page: Identification & Distribution Other aphids on the same host Damage & Control

Identification & Distribution

Adult apterae of Schoutedenia emblica are olive green with (usually faint) orange-buff patches. Antennal and median frontal tubercles are almost absent. The antennae are 5-segmented, about 0.5 the body length, and with a terminal process usually less than 0.5 times the base of antennal segment V (cf. Schoutedenia ralumensis, whose terminal process is more than 0.5 times the length of its base). There are no secondary rhinaria on antennal segment III. The eyes are very small and composed of only 3 facets (triommatidia). The rostrum reaches to the third pair of coxae, with the apical rostral segment (RIV+V) longer than the antennal terminal process (cf. Schoutedenia ralumensis, which has RIV+V shorter than the terminal process). Abdominal tergite VI has a pair of large, backwardly-pointed processes. The siphunculi are cone-shaped, and very short, only about 0.05 times the body length. The cauda is broadly oval with two long hairs.

Images above by permission, copyright Sunil Joshi & Poorani, J. Aphids of Karnataka (accessed 12/2/20).

The first picture below shows a clarified slide mount of an apterous adult. The alate Schoutedenia emblica (see second picture below) has 14-16 round secondary rhinaria evenly distributed on antennal segment III, and 1-2 on segment IV. The wings have a smoky appearance, with the veins dark bordered, and the borders widening at the apices of the veins. The hind wings are much reduced, without any oblique veins.

Images above by permission, copyright Sunil Joshi & Poorani, J. Aphids of Karnataka (accessed 12/2/20).

Subspecies

There were formerly two recognised subspecies of Schoutedenia emblica:

  • subspecies emblica on Phyllanthus emblica,
  • subspecies andhraka on Spiraea sp. in western Himalaya.

Both subspecies are recognised by Favret, but Blackman notes that Spiraea is an unlikely host, and that there are errors in the morphometric data on ssp. andhraka given by Bhattacharya & Dey (2001).

Schoutedenia emblica is monoecious on Indian gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica =Emblica officinalis). Aphids cannot be easily detected on the host plants as their colonies at the bases of leaflets - and these are concolourous with their body colour. The species is holocyclic. Apterous or brachypterous males, and oviparae are produced in August. Colonies are sometimes ant-attended. In India the aphid is present almost throughout the year with heavy infestations during winter. Schoutedenia emblica is found in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Thailand and China.

 

Other aphids on the same host

Blackman & Eastop list 6 species of aphid as feeding on Indian gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica) worldwide, and provide formal identification keys (Show World list). Of those aphid species, Baker (2015) lists none as occurring in Britain (Show British list).

 

Damage and control

The Indian gooseberry aphid is a serious pest of Indian gooseberry in southern India. Singh & Singh (2012) carried out a series of field trials during 2004 & 2005 to compare various insecticidal and biological control agents. On the basis of pooled mean of both the years, imidacloprid was the most effective; however, it was on par with acephate, ethion+cypermethrin and profenophos after 3 and 10 days and with acephate up to (after?) 15 days of application. Neem seed kernal extract reduced the aphid population by 71.38% and the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium (= Verticillium) lecanii and lacewing larvae (Chrysopa carnea) by 59.1% and 48.9% respectively.

Acknowledgements

We are very grateful to Sunil Joshi & J. Poorani, Aphids of Karnataka for permission to reproduce their images of the live aphids.

We have used the keys and species accounts of Patel & Kulkarni (1952, 1953) (as Cerciaphis emblica), & Joshi & Poorani in Aphids of Karnataka, along with information from Roger Blackman & Victor Eastop in Aphids on Worlds Plants. We fully acknowledge these authors and those listed in the reference sections as the source for the (summarized) taxonomic information we have presented. Any errors in identification or information are ours alone, and we would be very grateful for any corrections. For assistance on the terms used for aphid morphology we suggest the figure provided by Blackman & Eastop (2006).

Useful weblinks

References

  • Bhattacharya, D.K. & Dey, S.R. (2001). Taxonomy of some aphid species (Homoptera: Aphididae) of Garhwal Range of western Himalaya. Entomon 26 (3-4), 263-269. Full text

  • Patel, G.A. & Kulkarni, H.L. (1952). Cerciaphis emblica sp. nov. (Fam. Aphididae). A new aphid pest on Emblica officinalis. Current Science 21(12): 350.

  • Patel G.A. & Kulkarni, H.L. (1953). Cerciaphis emblica sp. nov. (Fam. Aphididae) - A new aphid pest on Emblica officinalis. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 51(2), 435-438. (p. 435) Full text

  • Singh, R.P. & Singh, H.M. (2012). Management of aphid Cerciaphis emblica Patel & Kulkarni infesting Indian gooseberry, Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Journal of Insect Science (Ludhiana) 25(4), 367-369. Abstract