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Aphididae : Calaphidinae : Panaphidini : Tinocallis
 

 

Genus Tinocallis

Elm aphids

On this page: Tinocallis nevskyi platani saltans takachihoensis ulmifolii ulmiparvifoliae

Genus Tinocallis [Panaphidini]

Tinocallis aphids are mostly small species. All viviparae are winged and usually have paired spinal and marginal tubercular processes. Some species have conspicuous black markings on dorsal body and/or on the forewings. The antennae are as long as or shorter than the body. The siphunculi are stump shaped and the cauda is knobbed.

There are about 18 Tinocallis species, usually associated with elms (Ulmaceae), although species have also been described from Lythraceae and other families. They have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but do not host alternate and are not attended by ants.

 

Tinocallis nevskyi (Pale Japanese elm aphid) Central & South-west Asia, Europe

In spring and summer, Tinocallis nevskyi alates are pale yellow, with pale or dusky antennae and legs (see first picture below). In autumn Tinocallis nevskyi have pigmentation on the head, thorax and siphunculi and frequently also on the tips of their marginal tubercles (see second picture below). Their antennae are 0.76-0.96 times the body length. The wings are hyaline and the veins of the forewings are not bordered with fuscous, nor is there a patch of fuscous on the hind margin at the end of vein Cu1b (cf. Tinocallis takachihoensis which has the distal branches of the media bordered with fuscous and fuscous patches at the distal ends of Cu1a and Cu1b). The pronotum has two pairs of pale finger-like spinal processes, and the mesonotum has one pair of large conical processes. The abdomen has spinal processes on tergites I and II, and lower wart-like tubercles on the other tergites and marginal tubercles. Tinocallis nevskyi siphunculi are short. The body length is 1.4-2.1 mm. Immature alatae are pale greenish yellow.

The pale Japanese elm aphid feeds on elm (Ulmus). This species originated in central and south-west Asia, but has spread over much of Europe. In some European countries Tinocallis nevskyi is now among the most common aphid species.

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Tinocallis platani (Dark-shadowed elm aphid) Europe, Asia, North America

All viviparae of Tinocallis platani are winged. Alatae are greenish-white to yellow (see two pictures below) with extensive black-brown markings on the head, thorax, abdomen and forewings. The head and prothorax are yellow with brown longitudinal stripes. The remainder of the thorax is brown (cf. Tinocallis takachihoensis,which has the head and pronotum wholly black). The antennae are pale yellow with the apices of segments dark, and are 0.78-0.94 times the body length. The antennal terminal process is 0.23-0.25 times as long as the base of segment VI, and there are 16-26 slit-like secondary rhinaria on segment III. The head and pronotum lack any dorsal processes. The apical rostral segment is 1.2-1.5 times the length of the second hind tarsal segment.

The forewing has the media and anal vein (Cu1b) thickly and rather evenly shadowed with fuscous, basally as well as distally. The cubitus vein (Cu1a) is also often partially shadowed (cf. Tinocallis nevskyi, Tinocallis ulmifolii & Tinocallis saltans, which do not have forewing veins shadowed with fuscous). There is no pigmented bridge between the media and vein Cu1a (cf. Tinocallis zelkowae, which has a pigmented bridge between the media and apical part of vein Cu1a). There are rather short finger-shaped spinal tubercles on abdominal segments I & II. The fore and middle legs are pale yellow, whilst the hind legs have most of the femora and proximal part of the tibiae black. The siphunculi are stump-shaped, black, with a dark basal sclerite. The body length of Tinocallis platani alatae is 2.0-2.2 mm. Immature Tinocallis platani are pale yellow with paired dusky spinal and marginal tubercular processes on the abdominal dorsum.

First image above copyright Mihajlo Tomić, second image above Alexis Orion,
both under a creative commons licence.

Tinocallis platani is found on the undersides of leaves of elm (Ulmus spp.), especially Russian elm (Ulmus laevis) and American white elm (Ulmus americana). Large numbers may be found on a single tree, even in areas where the species rare. Sexuales (oviparae and alate males) have been found on Russian elm in Europe in October. The dark-shadowed elm aphid is found throughout Europe, across Asia to eastern Siberia and China, and has been introduced into western North America.

 

Tinocallis saltans (Spotted elm aphid) East Asia, Europe, North America

All adult viviparae of Tinocallis saltans are winged. Alatae (see picture below) are orange-yellow to pale yellow, with a brown head and thorax. The antennal segment apices are dark. The antennae are 0.8-0.9 times as long as the body, with the terminal process about 0.9 times the length of the base of antennal segment VI (cf. Tinocallis platani, which has the terminal process about 0.2 times the base of antennal segment VI). Antennal segment III bears 12-15 narrow elliptical secondary rhinaria. The apical rostral segment is about equal to, or shorter than, the length of the second hind tarsal segment. The pronotum has two pairs of finger-like spinal processes (cf. Tinocallis platani, Tinocallis zelkowae & Tinocallis ulmifolii, which have no processes on the pronotum). The mesonotum also has one pair of dark processes. The distal branches of the media of the forewing are bordered with fuscous, and there is also a patch of fuscous at the end of wing vein Cu1b. On the abdomen, tergites I and II each have a pair of finger-like pale processes, and tergite IV has a pair of smaller finger-like processes; other segments have dark wart-like hairy dorsal tubercles and marginal tubercles. The abdomen has dark spinal sclerites on tergites III-VIII and dark marginal sclerites on tergites I and V (cf. Tinocallis takachihoensis which has no dark markings on the dorsal abdomen). The stump-shaped siphunculi are dusky, and the cauda is knobbed. The alatoid nymph (not pictured) has dorsal body setae set on dark sclerotic processes, as does the ovipara.

Image above copyright Andrew Jensen under a creative commons licence.

Tinocallis saltans are mainly found on elm (Ulmus spp.), but they have also been recorded from Zelkova serrata in Hungary. The species is monoecious holocyclic - fundatrices have been found in April and oviparae and alate males in October. It is found in Spain, Italy, eastern Europe (Hungary, Romania) and central and east Asia from Iran to Korea and China, and it has been introduced into North and South America (see Jensen in AphidTrek).

 

Tinocallis takachihoensis (Japanese elm aphid) East Asia, Europe, North America

The winged viviparae of Tinocallis takachihoensis (see first picture below) are pale yellow-green with a shiny black head and thorax. The pattern of black markings on the wings is diagnostic. There is a black patch where the hind femur meets the hind tibia. The pronotum and mesonotum each bear a pair of dorsal processes. The pair on the pronotum are small and pale, whilst the pair on the mesonotum are large and dark. There are also two pairs of paired dorsal processes on the abdominal dorsum. The head bears no dorsal processes (cf. Tinocallis ulmiparvifoliae which has three pairs of dorsal processes on the head), and there are no brown markings on the abdominal dorsum (cf. Tinocallis platani, which has extensive dark dorsal makings on the abdomen). The body length of Tinocallis takachihoensis alates is 1.8-2.0 mm. The immatures are pale yellow green with numerous tubercles topped with capitate hairs. They form large colonies with the alates on the undersides of the leaves (see second picture above).

The Japanese elm aphid feeds on elm (Ulmus spp) and some other genera in Japan, China and eastern Siberia. Tinocallis takachihoensis has also been introduced to Europe (France, Germany, England, Netherlands, Sicily, Andorra) and the USA. It now appears be established in most of these countries.

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Tinocallis ulmifoli (American elm aphid) North America

All adult viviparae of Tinocallis ulmifolii are alate. Alatae (see second and third pictures below) are pale yellow to greenish to reddish green to dark gray-green (for latter see Jensen in Aphidtrek). The antennal terminal process is about equal to the length of the base of segment VI, and antennal segment III has 5-12 secondary rhinaria. Tinocallis ulmifolii usually have several (wax-bordered) dusky longitudinal streaks on the head and pronotum, but they never have just a single narrow dark mesial stripe (cf. Tinocallis zelkowae, a Japanese species invasive in USA, which has a single narrow dark dorsal mesial stripe). The Tinocallis ulmifolii head and pronotum are without spinal processes (cf. Tinocallis ulmiparvifoliae, another invasive species, which has 2 pairs of spinal processes on the pronotum). Immatures are greenish yellow with long capitate hairs.

On abdominal tergites I & II there are two pairs of finger-like dorsal tubercles (see lateral view below); these are large and prominent, usually longer than their basal widths, with smaller ones on succeeding segments. There are also longitudinal rows of white wax spots on the abdomen, as well as dusky spots around hair-bases (see dorsal view below). The forewing veins are not dark-bordered (cf. Tinocallis platani, which has the forewing media vein and Cu1b veins thickly and rather evenly dark-bordered). The siphunculi are short, truncate, and more or less widened at the base. The cauda is knobbed and the anal plate is bilobed. The body length of Tinocallis ulmifolii alatae is 1.5-2.0 mm.

Images above, copyright Claude Pilon, all rights reserved.

Tinocallis ulmifolii feed on the undersides of leaves of elm (Ulmus spp.), especially American elm (Ulmus americana). Apterous oviparae and alate males occur in September-October (Palmer, 1952 as Myzocallis ulmifolii) and eggs are laid near the buds. The American elm leaf aphid is widely distributed in North America.

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Tinocallis ulmiparvifoliae (Wax-spotted elm aphid) East Asia, North America, Europe, Australasia

All adult viviparae of Tinocallis ulmiparvifoliae are winged. Alatae (see dorsal views in first picture below) are pale bluish-green, with paired spinal & pleural longitudinal white wax stripes on the head and pronotum, a single spinal white stripe on the pterothorax, and white wax spots on the dorsal abdomen. Their antennae are somewhat shorter than the body, and have (11-17) 22-26 secondary rhinaria on segment III. The head bears 3 pairs of dorsal processes (see lateral view in picture below). Each tubercle has an apical hair. The most posterior pair of tubercles is the longest at 1.5-2.0 times as long as wide (cf. Tinocallis nevskyi, Tinocallis platani, Tinocallis saltans & Tinocallis takachihoensis, which have no dorsal processes on the head). There are two pairs of stout dorsal tubercles on the pronotum, and one pair on the hind part of the mesonotum.

The abdomen has two pairs of tubercles on the basal part. The tips of abdominal, and to a lesser extent thoracic, tubercles are frequently dark. The wings are slightly clouded at the end of each oblique vein and its branch, and also at the base of the stigma. The siphunculi are pale, wider than long, expanded basally and a little constricted about the middle. The cauda is knobbed and the anal plate is deeply bilobed. The body length of Tinocallis ulmiparvifoliae alatae is 1.6-2.7 mm. Immatures (a newly born nymph is visible in the first picture shown on this page) are green with paired dusky spinal and marginal tubercular processes on the abdominal dorsum.

First image above copyright glmory under a public domain (CCO) licence.
Second image above copyright Stephen Thorpe under a creative commons licence.

Tinocallis ulmiparvifoliae is monoecious holocyclic on Chinese elm (Ulmus parvifolia). Oviparae have been recorded but not, so far, males. The wax-spotted elm aphid is native to Japan, Korea, China and Taiwan, but has been introduced to Australia, New Zealand, USA (Florida & California) and Europe (Britain, Italy and Spain).

Acknowledgements

Whilst we make every effort to ensure that identifications are correct, we cannot absolutely warranty their accuracy. We have mostly made identifications from high resolution photos of living specimens, along with host plant identity. In the great majority of cases, identifications have been confirmed by microscopic examination of preserved specimens. We have used the keys and species accounts of Blackman & Eastop (1994) and Blackman & Eastop (2006) supplemented with Blackman (1974), Stroyan (1977), Stroyan (1984), Blackman & Eastop (1984), Heie (1980-1995), Dixon & Thieme (2007) and Blackman (2010). We fully acknowledge these authors as the source for the (summarized) taxonomic information we have presented. Any errors in identification or information are ours alone, and we would be very grateful for any corrections. For assistance on the terms used for aphid morphology we suggest the figure provided by Blackman & Eastop (2006).

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