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Pages of information about basic statistics - for struggling Students - and their teachersOn this page: Displaying frequency distributions Means, medians, modes Types of variables Variance and Standard Deviation Standard error of the mean The Normal distribution Relationships between variables Quantiles (median, range, interquartile and 90% range) Statistics for beginners (using R) Extras (where values are not normal)
Beginners' stats. How to Do Them. Their Principles and Properties. Use and Misuse.
If you find 'elementary' statistical formulae meaningless, or merely wish to refresh your understanding, these pages are for you. They cover the basic points common to elementary statistics courses but, whilst providing the usual formulae, enable students and their teachers to explore the reasoning behind those formulae - without endless arithmetic, or mathematical 'proofs'.
Let your computer do the boring calculations - they are its job. Yours is to interpret the results.
Displaying frequency distributions
Means, medians, modes... (Measures of location)
Types of variables
Variance and Standard Deviation
Standard Error of the Mean
The Normal distribution
Relationships between variables
Beginners' statistics (using R)
Extras - where values are not normalWhy assuming normality causes problems Displaying distributions using R - including non normal values, Using R to understand how stats behave