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Use/Abuse Stat.Book Beginners Stats & R
"It has long been an axiom of mine that the little things are infinitely the most important" (Sherlock Holmes)

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Beginners' stats. How to Do Them. Their Principles and Properties. Use and Misuse.

If you find 'elementary' statistical formulae meaningless, or merely wish to refresh your understanding, these pages are for you. They cover the basic points common to elementary statistics courses but, whilst providing the usual formulae, enable students and their teachers to explore the reasoning behind those formulae - without endless arithmetic, or mathematical 'proofs'.

Let your computer do the boring calculations - they are its job. Yours is to interpret the results.

Take courage. The most common statistics mistakes, and abuses, are also the most elementary.  

Displaying frequency distributions


Means, medians, modes... (Measures of location)


Types of variables


Variance and Standard Deviation


Standard Error of the Mean


The Normal distribution


Relationships between variables




Beginners' statistics (using R)


Extras - where values are not normal

Why assuming normality causes problems  Displaying distributions using R  - including non normal values, Using R to understand how stats behave