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Statistics bibliography 07 - stats

Aarts, G. et al. (2008). Estimating space-use and habitat preference from wildlife telemetry data. Ecography 31 (1), 140-160. Read

Altman, D.G. & Schulz, K.F. (2001). Statistics Notes. Concealing treatment allocation in randomised trials. BMJ 323, 446-447. (August 25) Read Read [free pdf]

Altman, D.G. & Bland, J.M. (1997). Statistics Notes: Units of analysis. BMJ 314, 1874 (28 June). Read [free pdf]

Altman, D.G & Bland, J.M. (2005). Statistics Notes. Treatment allocation by minimisation. BMJ 330, 843. Read

Agudo, A. & Gonzalez, C.A. (1999). Secondary matching: a method for selecting controls in case-control studies on environmental risk factors. International Journal of Epidemiology 28 (6), 1130-1133. Read [free pdf]

Altman, D.G. & Bland, J.M. (1999). Statistics notes. How to randomise. BMJ 319, 703-704 (11 September). Read [free pdf]

Allison (1999). The implications of experimental design for biodiversity manipulations. The American Naturalist 153, 26- 45. Read

Araujo, P. (2008). Determining variability, confidence,and statistical power in aquaculture experiments. The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - Bamidgeh 60 (2), 134-153. Read [free pdf]

Armitage, P. & Berry, G. (2002). Statistical methods in medical research. 4th Edn. Blackwells, Oxford.

Armenian, H. (2009) (Ed.) The case-control method. Design and applications. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 240 pp. Read

Axelson, O. et al. (1994). Use of the prevalence ratio v the prevalence odds ratio as a measure of risk in cross sectional studies. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 51 (8), 574. Read [free]

Baigent, C. (1997). The need for large-scale randomized evidence. British Journal of Pharmacology 43, 349-353. Read Read [free pdf]

Baker, J.L. (2000). Evaluating the impact of development projects on poverty. A handbook for practitioners The World Bank. Read [free pdf]

Blackburn, T.M. (2004). Method in macroecology Basic and Applied Ecology 5 (5), 401-412. Read

Blackmore, C.G. & Cummings, P. (2004). Observational studies in radiology. American Journal of Roentgenology 183, 1203-1208. Read [free pdf]

Bland, M. (2000). Not a case-control study. (Rapid response) BMJ (14 July). Read [no longer accessible]

Bland, J.M. (2004). Cluster randomised trials in the medical literature: two bibliometric surveys. BMC Medical Research Methodology 4-21. Read Read [free pdf]

Bland, J.M. (2004). The experimental unit is wrong. (Rapid Response). BMJ 329 (27 August). Read [no longer accessible]

Block, W.M. et al. (2001). Design and implementation of monitoring studies to evaluate the success of ecological restoration on wildlife. Restoration Ecology 9 (3), 293-303. Read Read [free pdf]

Bennett, S. et al. (2002). Methods for the analysis of incidence rates in cluster randomized trials. International Journal of Epidemiology 31 (4), 839-846. Read [free pdf]

Benson, K. & Hartz, A.J. (2000). A comparison of observational studies and randomized, controlled trials. New England Journal of Medicine 342, 1878-1886. Read [free pdf]

Biesheuvel, C.J. et al. (2008). Advantages of the nested case-control design in diagnostic research. BMC Medical Research Methodology 8:48. Read Read [free pdf]

Björk, J. & Strömberg, U. (2002). Effects of systematic exposure assessment errors in partially ecologic case-control studies. International Journal of Epidemiology 31 (1), 154-160. Read [free pdf]

Bland, J.M. & Kerry, S.M. (1997). Statistics Notes - Trials randomised in clusters. BMJ 315, 600 (6 September). Read [free pdf]

Bloom et al. (2007). The use and misuse of matching in case-control studies: the example of PCOS. Fertility and Sterility 88 (3), 707-710. Read [free pdf]

Bailey, R.A. (2008) Design of comparative experiments. Cambridge University Press. 348 pp. Read [free pdf]

Brenner, H. et al. (1992). Effect of nondifferential exposure misclassification in ecologic studies. American Journal of Epidemiology 135, 85-95. Read

Bernhardsen, T. (2002). Geographic information systems: An introduction. 3rd edn. Wiley, New York. 448 pp. on line]

Bennett, S. et al. (1991). A simplified general method for cluster-sample surveys. World Health Organization Statistical Quarterly 44 (3), 98-106. Read [free pdf]

Bland, J.M. & Altman, D.G. (1994). Matching. BMJ 309, 1128 (29 October). Read [free pdf]

Boutron I, et al. (2007). Reporting methods of blinding in randomized trials assessing nonpharmacological treatments. PLoS Medicine 4 (2): e61. Read [free html/pdf]

Boyce, M.S. (2006). Scale for resource selection functions. Diversity and Distributions 12 (1), 269-276. Read Read [free pdf]

Barros, A.J.D. & Hirakata, V.N. (2003). Alternatives for logistic regression in cross-sectional studies: an empirical comparison of models that directly estimate the prevalence ratio. BMC Medical Research Methodology 3:21. Read Read [free pdf]

Buckland, S.T. et al. (1993). Distance sampling : Estimating abundance of biological populations. Chapman & Hall, London. Read [free on-line book pdf]

Burrough, P.A. & McDonnell, R.A. (1998). Principles of geographical information systems. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Chambers, R.L. & Skinner, C.J. (Eds.) (2003). Analysis of Survey Data (Wiley Series in Survey Methodology). WileyBlackwell, 398 pp.

Chuang, J.-H. (2002). Design and analysis of controlled trials in naturally clustered environments: Implications for medical informatics. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 9, 230-238. Read [free pdf]

Cochran, W.G. (1977). Sampling techniques. 3rd Edn. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Clarke, K.C. (1996). On epidemiology and geographic information systems: A review and discussion of future directions. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2 (2), 85-92. Read [free pdf]

Cook, T.D. & Campbell, D.T. (1979). Quasi-experimentation: design and analysis issues for field settings. Rand McNally Publishing Company, Chicago

Crawley, M.J. (2005). Statistics: An introduction using R. Wiley.

Crawley, M.J. (2007). The R book. Wiley. 942 pp.

Cummings, P. et al. (2003). Matched cohort methods for injury research. Epidemiology Reviews 25, 43-50. Read Read [free pdf]

Cummings, P. & McKnight, B. (2004). Analysis of matched cohort data. The Stata Journal 4 (3), 274-281. Read [free pdf]

Cochran (1968). Planning and analysis of observational studies. Wiley, New York and London.

Cochran, W.G. & Cox, G.M. (1992). Experimental designs. 2nd Edn. Wiley.

Costanza, M.C. (1995). Matching. Preventive Medicine 24 (5), 425-433. Read

Cottenie , K. & De Meester, L. (2003). Comment to Oksanen (2001): reconciling Oksanen (2001) and Hurlbert(1984). Oikos 100 (2), 394-396. Read Read [free pdf]

Crawley, M.J. (1993). GLIM for ecologists. Blackwell Science, Oxford.

Coutinho, L.M.S. et al. (2008). Methods for estimating prevalence ratios in cross-sectional studies. Revista de Saúde Publica 42 (6), 992-998. Read [free pdf]

Czitrom, V. (1999). One-factor-at-a-time versus designed experiments. American Statistician 53, 126-131. Read

Delaney, J. & Van Niel, K. (2007). Geographical Information Systems: An introduction. 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 224 pp. on line]

Donner, A. & Klar, N. (2000). Design and analysis of cluster randomization trials in health research. Arnold. 151 pp. on line]

Donner, A. & Klar, N. (2004). Pitfalls of and controversies in cluster randomization trials. American Journal of Public Health 94 (3), 416-422. Read [free pdf]

Conan Doyle, A. (1891). The Boscombe Valley mistery. First published in Strand Magazine, London, October 1891

Day, S.J. & Altman, D.G. (2000). Statistics Notes: Blinding in clinical trials and other studies. BMJ 321, 504 (19-26 August). Read Read [free pdf]

Eberhardt, L.L. & Thomas, J.M. (1991). Designing environmental field studies. Ecological Monographs 61 (1), 53-73. Read

Eldridge, S.M. et al. (2006). Sample size for cluster randomized trials: effect of coefficient of variation of cluster size and analysis method. International Journal of Epidemiology 35 (5), 1292-1300. Read Read [free pdf]

Feinstein, A.R. (1988). Scientific standards in epidemiologic studies of the menace of daily life. Science 242, 1257-1263 (2 December). Read

Fergusson, D. et al. (2008). The before/after study design in transfusion medicine: Methodologic considerations. Transfusion Medicine Reviews 16 (4), 296-303. Read

Ferraro P.J. & Pattanayak S.K. ( (2006). Money for nothing? A call for empirical evaluation of biodiversity conservation investments. PLoS Biology 4 (4), e105. Read [free html/pdf]

Festing, M.F.W. (2003). Principles: The need for better experimental design. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 24 (7), 341-345. Read

Fottrell, E. & Byass, P. (2008). Population survey sampling methods in a rural African setting: measuring mortality. Population Health Metrics 6:2. Read Read [free pdf]

Fisher, R.A. (1935). The design of experiments. 1st Edition. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Frerichs, R.R. (1989). Simple analytic procedures for rapid microcomputer-assisted surveys in developing countries. Public Health Reports 104, 24-35. Read [free pdf]

Garcia-Berthou, E. & Hurlbert, S. (1999). Pseudoreplication in hermit crab shell selection experiments: Comment to Wilber. Bulletin of Marine Science 65 (3), 893-895. Read [free pdf]

Garey, K.W. (2004). The Role of Matching in Epidemiologic Studies. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 68 (3), Article 83. Read Read [free pdf]

Gillings, D. et al. (1981). Analysis of interrupted time series mortality trends: An example to evaluate regionalized perinatal care. American Journal of Public Health 71 (1), 38-46. Read [free pdf]

Green, S.B. (2002). Design of Randomized Trials. Epidemiologic Reviews 24 (1), 4-11. Read [free pdf]

Greenland, S. (2001). Ecologic versus individual-level sources of bias in ecologic estimates of contectual health effects. International Journal of Epidemiology 30 (6), 1343-1350. Read [free pdf]

Grimes, D.A. & Schulz, K.F. (2005). Compared to what? Finding controls for case control studies. Lancet 365, 1429-1433 (30 April). Read Read [free pdf]

Greenland, S. & Holland, P. (1991). Estimating standardized risk differences from odds ratios. Biometrics47 (1), 319-322. Read

Greenland, S. & Morgenstern, H. (1990). Matching and efficiency in cohort studies. American Journal of Epidemiology 131 (1), 151-159. Read

Grimes, D.A. & Schultz, K.F. (2002). Descriptive studies: what they can and cannot do. The Lancet 359, 145-149 (12 January). Read Read [free pdf]

Grimes, D.A. & Schultz, K.F. (2002). Cohort studies: marching towards outcomes. The Lancet 359, 341-345 (26 January). Read

Greenwood, D. (2000). Re: Not a case-control study. (Rapid response) BMJ (18 July). Read [no longer accesible]

Gurwitz et al. (2005). Reader's guide to critical appraisal of cohort studies: 1. Role and design. BMJ 330, 895-7. Read Read [free pdf]

Gotelli, N.J. & Ellison, A,M. (2004). A primer of ecological statistics. Sinauer Assoc Inc, 479 pp. Read [free pdf of Chapter 7]

Harris, A.D. (2004). The use and interpretation of quasi-experimental studies in infectious diseases. Clinical Infectious Diseases 38 (12), 1586-1591. Read Read [free pdf]

Harris, A.D. et al. (2006). The use and interpretation of quasi-experimental studies in medical informatics Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13, 16-23. Read Read [free pdf]

Heffner, R.A. et al. (1996). Pseudoreplication revisited. Ecology 77 (8), 2558-2562. Read

Hróbjartsson, A. et al. (2007). Blinded trials taken to the test: an analysis of randomized clinical trials that report tests for the success of blinding. International Journal of Epidemiology 36 (3), 654-663. Read Read [free pdf]

Hewitt, C. et al. (2005). Adequacy and reporting of allocation concealment: review of recent trials published in four general medical journals. BMJ 330, 1057-1058 (7 May). Read Read [free pdf]

Hewitt, J.E.(2007). The effect of spatial and temporal heterogeneity on the design and analysis of empirical studies of scale-dependent systems. The American Naturalist 169 (3), 1238-1243. Read Read [free pdf]

Hill, A.B.(1965). The environment and disease: association or causation? Proceedings of the Royal Society. Medical 58 (5), 295-300. Read [free pdf]

Hinklemann, K. & Kempthorne, O. (2008). Design and analysis of experiments. Volume 1. Introduction to experimental design. 2nd Edn. Wiley. 631 pp.

Hildebrand, P. (2000). Not a case-control study. Author's response. (Rapid response) BMJ (20 July). Read [no longer accessible]

Hoshaw-Woodard, S. (2001). Description and comparison of the methods of cluster sampling and lot quality assurance sampling to assess immunization coverage. WHO report WHO/V&B/01.26. World Health Organization, Geneva. 15 pp. Read [free pdf]

Hurlbert, S.H. (1984) Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experiments. Ecological Monographs 54 (2), 187-211. Read Read [free pdf]

Hurlbert, S.H. (1997). Review of Experiments in Ecology, by A.J. Underwood, Cambridge University Press, 1996. Endeavour 21, 172-173. Read [free pdf]

Hurlbert, S.H. (2004). On misinterpretations of pseudoreplication and related matters: a reply to Oksanen. Oikos 104 (3), 591-597. Read Read [free pdf]

Hurlbert, S. (2009). The ancient black art and transdisciplinary extent of pseudoreplication. Journal of Comparative Psychology 123 (4), 434-443. Read Read [free pdf]

Hurlbert, S.H. & Lombardi, C.M. (2003). Design and analysis: Uncertain intent, uncertain result. Book review of Quinn, G.P. & Keough, M.J. (2002). Experimental design and data analysis for biologists. CUP, New York. Ecology 84 (3), 810-812. Read

Hurlbert, S.H. & Meikle, W.G.. (2003). Pseudoreplication, fungi, and locusts. Journal of Economic Entomology 96 (3), 533-535. Read [abstract only]

Hurlbert, S.H. & White, M.D. (1993). Experiments with freshwater invertebrate zooplanktivores: Quality of statistical analyses. Bulletin of marine science. 53, 128-153. Read [free pdf]

Hay, S.I. et al. (2000). Remote sensing and geographical information systems in epidemiology. Academic Press, London.

Heckman, J.J. & Smith, J.A. (1995). Assessing the case for social experiments. Journal of Economic Perspectives 9 (2), 85-110. Read Read [free pdf]

Inouye, B.D. (2005). The importance of the variance around the mean effect size of ecological processes: comment. Ecology 86 (1), 262-265. Read Read [free pdf]

Johnson, P.D. & Besselsen, D.G. (2002). Practical aspects of experimental design in animal research. ILAR Journal 43 (4), 202-206. Read [free pdf]

James, W.L. et al. (2004). A brief visual primer for the mapping of mortality trend data. International Journal of Health Geographics 3:7. Read Read [free]

Jones, B. & Kenward, M.G. (2003). Design and analysis of cross-over trials. 2nd Edn. Chapman & Hall,/CRC. 408pp. on line]

Jessup, D.A. (2003). Opportunistic research and sampling combined with fish and wildlife management actions or crisis response. ILAR Journal 44 (4), 277-285. Read [free pdf]

Jewett, D.L. (2005). What's wrong with single hypotheses?: Why it is time for Strong-Inference-PLUS. Scientist 19 (21), 10. Read [free pdf]

Kang, M. et al. (2008). Issues in outcomes research: An overview of randomization techniques for clinical trials. Journal of Athletic Training 43 (2), 215-221. Read [free pdf]

Kaplan, S. et al. (1998). A methodological note on the selection of friends as a control. International Journal of Epidemiology 27 (4), 727-729. Read [free pdf]

Karon, J.M. & Kupper, L.L. (1982). In defense of matching. American Journal of Epidemiology 11 (5), 852-866.

Keating, K.A. & Cherry, S. (2004). Use and interpretation of logistic regression in habitat-selection studies. Journal of Wildlife Management 68 (4), 774-789. Read

Kestenbaum, B. (2009). Epidemiology and Biostatistics Springer, New York. Read

Kish, L. (1965). Survey Sampling Wiley & Sons, New York. 664 pp.

Kilkenny C. et al. (2009). Survey of the quality of experimental design, statistical analysis and reporting of research using animals. PLoS ONE 4 (11), e7824. Read [free html/pdf]

Klar, N. & Donner, A. (1997). The merits of matching in community intervention trials: a cautionary tale. Statistics in Medicine 16 (15), 1753-1764. Read

Knol, M. et al. (2008). What do case-control studies estimate? Survey of methods and assumptions in published case-control research. American Journal of Epidemiology 168 (9), 1073-1081. Read Read [free pdf]

Kozlov, M.V. (2003). Pseudoreplication in Russian ecological publications. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 84 (2), 45-47. (Full Russian version published in Zhurnal Obstchei Biologii [Journal of Fundamental Biology] 64, 292-307.) Read [free pdf]

Kozlov, M.V. & Hurlbert, S.H. (2006). Pseudoreplication, chatter, and the international nature of science: A response to D. V. Tatarnikov. Russian version published in Zhurnal Obstchei Biologii [Journal of Fundamental Biology] 67 (2), 145-152. Read [free pdf]

Kupper, L.L. et al. (1981). Matching in epidemiologic studies: Validity and efficiency considerations. Biometrics 37, 271-291. Read

Lathyris, D.N. et al. (2007). Evidence from crossover trials: empirical evaluation and comparison against parallel arm trials. International Journal of Epidemiology 36 (2), 422-430. Read Read [free pdf]

Lee, J. (1994). Odds ratio or relative risk for cross-sectional data? International Journal of Epidemiology 23, 201-203. Read

Legga, C.J. & Nagyb, L.. (2006). Why most conservation monitoring is, but need not be, a waste of time. Journal of Environmental Management 78 (2), 194-199. Read

Lehtonen, R. & Pahkinen, E. (2003). Practical Methods for Design and Analysis of Complex Surveys 2nd Edn. WileyBlackwell, 360 pp.

Levy, P.S. & Lemeshow, S. (1991) Sampling of populations: methods & applications. Wiley & Sons, New York.

Lombardi, C.M. & Hurlbert, S.H. (1996). Sunfish cognition and pseudoreplication. Animal Behaviour 52 (2), 419-422. Read Read [free pdf]

Longley, P.A. et al. (2005). Geographic Information Systems and Science Wiley, New York. 536 pp. on line]

Lu, C.Y. (2009). Observational studies: a review of study designs, challenges and strategies to reduce confounding. International Journal of Clinical Practice 63 (5), 691-697. Read Read [free pdf]

Luman, E.T. et al. (2007). Comparison of two survey methodologies to assess vaccination coverage. International Journal of Epidemiology 36 (3), 633-641. Read Read [free htm1]

Lumley, T. (2010). Complex surveys: a guide to analysis using R. Wiley & Sons. Read [book website]

Lewis, S.C. & Warlow, C.P. (2004). How to spot bias and other potential problems in randomised controlled trials. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 75 (2), 181-187. Read Read [free pdf]

Murtaugh, P.A. (2002). On rejection rates of paired intervention analysis. Ecology 83 (6), 1752-1761. Read Read [free pdf]

Mamdani, M. et al. (2005). Reader's guide to critical appraisal of cohort studies: 2. Assessing potential for confounding. BMJ 330,960-962 (23 April). Read Read [free pdf]

Manly, B.F.J. (2008). Statistics for Environmental Science and Management. 2nd edn. Chapman & Hall. 292 pp. on line]

Marshall, T. (2004). What is a case-control study? (Letter) International Journal of Epidemiology 33, 612-617 Read Read [free pdf]

Martin, D.C. et al. (1993). The effect of matching on the power of randomized community intervention studies. Statistics in Medicine 12, 329-338. Read

McNutt, L. et al. (2003). Estimating the relative risk in cohort studies and clinical rials of common outcomes. American Journal of Epidemiology157 (10), 319-322. Read Read [free pdf]

Murtaugh, P.A. (2000). Paired intervention analysis in ecology. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 5 (3), 280-292. Read

McArdle, B.H. (1996). Levels of evidence in studies of competition, predation and disease. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 20 (1), 7-15. Read [free pdf]

f0f0> McDonald, T.L. et al. (2000). Analysis of count data from before-after control-impact studies. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 5 (3), 262-279. Read

Mead, R. (1988). The design of experiments. Statistical principles for practical application. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Meier, P. (1975). Statistics and medical experimentation. Biometrics 31, 511-529. Read

Meinert, C.L. (1986). Clinical trials: Design, conduct and analysis. Oxford University Press, USA. 496 pp. on line]

Meyer, B.D. (2006). Natural and quasi-experiments in economics. Journal of Business & Economic Statistics 13 (2), 151-161. Read [free pdf]

Mezei, G. & Kheifets, L. (2006). Selection bias and its implications for case-control studies: a case study of magnetic field exposure and childhood leukaemia. International Journal of Epidemiology 35 (2), 397-406. Read Read [free pdf]

Millar, R.B. & Anderson, M.J. (2004). Remedies for pseudoreplication. Fisheries Research 70 (2-3), 397-407. Read

Moerbeek, M. et al. (2003). A comparison between traditional methods and multilevel regression for the analysis of multicenter intervention studies. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 56, 341-350. Read Read [free pdf]

Monserud, R.A. (1995). Large-Scale Forest Management Experiments: Advantages and Problems. FAO Report Read [free html]

Morgenstern, H. (1998). Ecologic studies. pp 459-480 in: Rothman, K.J. & Greenland, S. (eds). Modern epidemiology. 2nd edn. Lippincott, Philadelphia.

Morgenstern, H. (1995). Ecologic studies in epidemiology: Concepts, principles and methods. Annual Reviews in Public Health 16, 61-81. Read

Morgenstern, H. & Thomas, D. (1993). Principles of study design in environmental epidemiology. Environmental Health Perspectives 101 (Suppl 4), 2486-2491. Read Read [free pdf]

Morrison, D.A. & Morris, E.C. (2000). Comment. Pseudoreplication in experimental designs for the manipulation of seed germination treatments. Austral Ecology 25, 292-296. Read Read [free pdf]

Murray, D.M. (2004). Design and analysis of group-randomized trials: A review of recent methodological developments. American Journal of Public Health 94, 423-432. Read [free pdf]

Normand S.L.T. et al. (2005). Reader's guide to critical appraisal of cohort studies: 3. Analytical strategies to reduce confounding. BMJ 330, 1021-1023. Read Read [free pdf]

O'Donohue, W. & Buchanan, J.A. (2001). The weakness of strong inference. Behavior and Philosophy 29, 1-20. Read [free pdf]

Oksanen, L. (2001). Logic of experiments in ecology: is pseudreplication a pseudoissue? Oikos 94 (1), 27-38. Read Read [free pdf]

Osborn, J. & Cattaruzza, M.S. (1995). Odds ratios and relative risk for cross-sectional data. International Journal of Epidemiology 24 (2), 464-465. Read

Petersen, R.G. (1985). Design and analysis of experiments. Dekker, New York & Basel.

Pearce, J.L. & Boyce, M. (2006). Modelling distribution and abundance with presence-only data. Journal of Applied Ecology 43 (3), 405-412. Read Read [free]

Pearce, N. (1993). What does the odds ratio estimate in a case-control study. International Journal of Epidemiology 22 (6), 1189-1192. Read

Pearce, N. (2004). Effect measures in prevalence studies. Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (10), 1047-1050. Read Read [free pdf]

Pfeiffer, D.U. et al. (2008). Spatial analysis in epidemiology. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 208 pp. on line]

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Pocock, S.J. (1983). Clinical trials. A practical approach. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.

Priede, I.G. & Swift, S.M. (eds.) (1992). Wildlife telemetry: Remote monitoring and tracking of animals. Ellis Horwood, Chichester. 708 pp.

Quinn, J.F. & Dunham, A.E. (1983). On hypothesis testing in ecology and evolution. The American Naturalist 122 (5), 602-617. Read Read [free pdf]

Quinn, G.P. & Keough, M.J. (2002). Experimental design and data analysis for biologists. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Rasmussen, P.W. et al. (2001). Time series intervention analysis: Unreplicated large scale experiments. pp 158-177 In: Scheiner, S.M. & Gurevitch, J. Design and analysis of ecological experiments. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Rabinowitz, P.M. et al. (1999). Wildlife as sentinels for human health hazards: a review of study designs. Journal of Environmental Medicine 1 (4), 217-233. Read

Ramirez, C.C. et al. (2000). Pseudoreplication and its frequency in olfactometric laboratory studies. Journal of Chemical Ecology 26 (6), 1423-1431. Read Read [free pdf]

Ramsey, F.L. et al. (1994). Habitat association studies of the Northern Spotted Owl, Sage Grouse, and Flammulated Owl. pp 189-209 in: Lange, N. et al.(eds). Case studies in biometry. Wiley, New York.

Robbins, A.S. et al. (2002). What's the Relative Risk? A Method to Directly Estimate Risk Ratios in Cohort Studies of Common Outcomes. Annals of Epidemiology12 (7), 452-454. Read [free pdf]

Rothman, K.J. & Greenland, S. (1998). Chapter 5. Types of epidemiologic studies. pp 67-78. In: Rothman, K.J. & Greenland, S. (eds). Modern epidemiology. 2nd edn. Lippincott, Philadelphia.

Rothman, K.J. & Greenland, S. (1997). Cohort studies. pp 79-91 in: Rothman, K.J. & Greenland, S. (eds). Modern Epidemiology. 2nd edn. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia.

Rodriguez, L. & Kirkwood, B.R. (1990). Case-control designs in the study of common diseases: updates on the demise of the rare disease assumption and the choice of sampling scheme for controls. International Journal of Epidemiology 19 (1), 205-213. Read

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Rosenbaum, P.R .(2010). Design of Observational Studies. Springer Series in Statistics, 385 pp. Read

Rothman, K.J. & Greenland, S. (2008). Chapter 8. Case-control studies. pp 111-127. In: Rothman, K.J. et al. (eds). Modern epidemiology. 3rd edn. Lippincott, Philadelphia.

Rubin, D.B. (1986) Which ifs have causal answers. Comment on Holland, P.W. Statistics and Causal Inference. JASA 81, 945-960. Journal of the American Statistical Association 81 (No. 396), 961-964. Read

Rubin, D.B. (1973). Matching to remove bias in observational studies. Biometrics 29 (1), 159-183. Read

Sackett, D.L. (2007). Commentary: Measuring the success of blinding in RCTs: don't, must, can't or needn't? International Journal of Epidemiology 36 (3), 664-665. Read Read [free pdf]

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Scheiner, S.M. & Gurevitch, J. (2001). Design and analysis of ecological experiments. Oxford University Press. Oxford, UK.

Scheiner, S.M. (2001). Theories, hypotheses and statistics. pp 3-13 In: Scheiner, S.M. and Gurevitch, J. Design and Analysis of Ecological Experiments. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

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Schulz, K.F. & Grimes, D.A. (2002). Generation of allocation sequences in randomised trials: chance, not choice. The Lancet 359, 515-519 (9 February). Read Read [free pdf]

Schulz, K.F. & Grimes, D.A.(2002) . Blinding in randomised trials: hiding who got what. Lancet 359, 696-700 (23 February). Read Read

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