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Aphidomorpha : Aphididae : Aphidinae genera
 

 

Aphid Genera : Aphidinae

Tribes Aphidini & Macrosiphini

On this page: Tribe Aphidini Subtribe Aphidina Subtribe Rhopalosiphina Tribe Macrosiphini

The Aphidinae is the largest Aphididae subfamily, with at least 2483 species in 256 genera in 2 tribes: the Aphidini and Macrosiphini. Tribe Aphidini has 32 genera in 2 subtribes: the Aphidina, with 21 genera, and Rhopalosiphina, with 11 genera. Tribe Macrosiphini has 244 genera. More detail

Tribe Aphidini : subtribe Aphidina

Genera

Genus Aphis [Aphidini]

Very small to rather large aphids. Adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. The body is broadly oval in shape, never very elongate. The dorsal cuticle is membranous with a variable amount of dark sclerotic markings. Siphunculi are more or less cylindrical or tapering, never distinctly swollen. The cauda is usually more or less elongate. The legs are variably pigmented, but rarely entirely dark.

There are about 500 species on a great variety of hosts. Some are host specific - others are found on a great variety of different plants, but never on sedges (Cyperaceae) and very rarely on grasses (Poaceae). Many species host alternate and many are ant attended. Most species retain a sexual stage in the life cycle, but some species have populations that reproduce viviparously year round. Many species are important crop pests.

Species overview

 

Genus Brachyunguis [Aphidini]

Usually grey or green and, apart from the North American species, are often coated with mealy wax. They are generally without much body sclerotization. The antennal terminal process is usually short. Secondary rhinaria are absent in the apterous viviparous females. In the majority of species the apical rostral segment is short. The siphunculi are very short, pale or rarely dark, and subcylindrical or conical. The cauda is conical, triangular, or finger-shaped, and is pale or dark.

Brachyunguis has about 40 species which feed mostly on plants in the Amaranthaceae but some have other hosts. The species of Brachyunguis are distributed in arid regions of Southern Europe, Northern Africa, Asia, and America.

Species overview

 

Image copyright László Érsek, all rights reserved.

Genus Protaphis [Aphidini]

Protaphis are small to medium sized aphids that are adapted to feeding at the stem base and roots of plants where they are tended by ants. They have short appendages and other morphological features adapted to their mode of life.

There are about 50 Protaphis species, mostly in Europe and Central Asia, with a few in Africa and North America. They mostly feed at the stem bases or roots of the Asteraceae. They have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but do not host alternate. Protaphis are usually attended by ants.

Species overview

 

 

Tribe Aphidini, subtribe Rhopalosiphina

Genera

Genus Hyalopterus [Aphidini]

Small to medium sized elongate aphids, the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. They are usually pale green mottled with darker green and most are covered with a white waxy meal. Some aphids on the summer host may be dark pink rather than green. The antennae are shorter than the body, and the siphunculi are very short, thicker and darker towards their tips. The cauda is markedly longer than the siphunculi.

A small genus with only 3 species. They may retain the sexual stage in the life cycle and alternate between plum (Prunus spp.) in winter/spring and common reed (Phragmites) in summer, or may live year round on either host. They are not attended by ants. One species is an important pest of plum trees which are affected by fungi growing on the honeydew-coated leaves.

Species overview

 

Genus Melanaphis [Aphidini]

Small to medium-sized to elongate oval or pear-shaped aphids closely related to Rhopalosiphum aphids. The siphunculi are shorter than the cauda. The abdomen has dark dorsal markings. The winged forms have dark forewing veins with the media vein twice-branched.

There are about 25 species of Melanaphis aphids. The three European species are associated with Rosaceae and Poaceae, whilst the remaining East Asian species are associated with Miscanthus or Arundinaria.

Species overview

 

Genus Rhopalosiphum [Aphidini]

Small to medium-sized green or brownish aphids, oval to rather elongate in shape. Antennal and median tubercles are similarly but weakly developed and the antennae are shorter than the body. Marginal tubercles are usually present. The siphunculi are longer than the cauda and have an apical expansion followed by a constriction below a strong flange. The cauda is finger- or tongue-shaped. Winged forms have a dorsal abdominal pigmented pattern.

About 14 species worldwide which host alternate between plum (Prunus: Rosaceae) as primary hosts and grasses (Poaceae) and sedges (Cyperaceae) as secondary hosts. They may be attended by ants. The genus includes several important cereal pests.

Species Overview

 

Genus Schizaphis [Aphidini]

Schizaphis are small to medium sized aphids, ovate to somewhat elongate in shape. The dorsal body cuticle is colourless to smoky and more or less reticulate, sometimes with a transverse dark band across abdominal tergite 8. The siphunculi are cylindrical to slightly tapering. The cauda is blunt finger shaped, from about half as long as, to slightly longer than, the siphunculi. The rostrum is short, not reaching beyond the middle coxae. The forewing of the alate has the median vein only once branched.

The Schizaphis genus has about 40 species, of which about half of which live all year on grasses (Poaceae). Most of the rest belong to the subgenus Paraschizaphis and live on on sedges (Cyperaceae) and bulrushes (Typhaceae). A few mainly Asian species host alternate, overwintering as eggs on pear (Pyrus) or apple (Malus). More than half the species are European, and the others live in Middle East, Asia, Africa and North America.

Species overview

 

Subgenus Toxoptera [Aphidini]
Previously Genus Toxoptera, now an Aphis subgenus.

Small to medium-sized aphids. The median tubercle on the head is a little lower than the antennal tubercles. The dorsal body cuticle is pale and membranous, apart from a narrow dusky transverse band on tergite 8. Marginal tubercles are usually present. The siphunculi are short and dark and slightly longer than the cauda. The cauda is finger-shaped, blunt, dark and slightly constricted at about one third of its length. The aphid has a stridulatory apparatus consisting of ridges on the abdomen and peg-like hairs on the hind tibia.

About 4 species worldwide on various trees and shrubs. There is no sexual stage in the life cycle, so species everywhere are anholocyclic. They are of east Asian origin, but two species are now widely distributed on citrus and various shrubs.

Species Overview

 

 

Tribe Macrosiphini

Genera

Genus Acaudinum [Macrosiphini]

Acaudinum are medium-sized dark brown to blackish aphids. The head is broad and lacks antennal or median tubercles. Their antennae have a long terminal process, and both apterae and alatae have many secondary rhinaria on segment III. The main part of the dorsum is membranous, with no marginal tubercles. The siphunculi are long, tapering and dark with an indistinct flange. The cauda is very short, broad and rounded and bears numerous hairs.

Acaudinum aphids feed on knapweeds (Centaureae species) in Europe and western Asia. There are 5 species, all Palaearctic. They are attended by ants.

Species Overview

 

Genus Acyrthosiphon [Macrosiphini]

Aphids are rather large broadly spindle-shaped, short-haired aphids with long antennae, legs, siphunculi and cauda. They are usually green but sometimes brownish, pink, or yellow. The antennal tubercles are well developed, usually smooth with diverging inner sides. The median frontal tubercle is very small or absent. The antennae are about as long as the body or longer. The siphunculi are cylindrical or tapering, occasionally with 1-3 rows of hexagonal cells below the distinct flange. The cauda is tongue- or finger-shaped, often slightly constricted.

A genus of about 80 species worldwide living without host alternation on various dicots, particularly Fabaceae, Rosaceae, and Euphorbiaceae.

Species Overview

 

Genus Amphicercidus [Macrosiphini]

Most are green or brown, and are covered to a greater or lesser extent with wax. The frontal tubercles are only partially developed. The antennae have numerous secondary rhinaria present on segment III of both the alate and apterous vivipara. The siphunculi are cylindrical, and transversely wrinkled. The cauda is very short, broad and semilunar resembling the anal plate.

There are 10 species recognised worldwide, 4 in East Asia, 2 in Central Asia, 2 in India and 2 in North America. They are mostly associated with genera in the honeysuckle family (Caprifolicaceae), but one East Asian species feeds on Forsythia (Oleaceae) and another on Stauntonia (Lardizabalaceae). Most feed on the leaves or stems, but the American Amphicercidus pulverulens feeds on the bark of Symphoricarpus spp., at or below ground level.

Species overview

 

Image copyright Akihide Koguchi, all rights reserved.

Genus Amphorophora [Macrosiphini]

Medium-sized to large rather pale greenish aphids. Adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. The body is elongate or oval, with long legs and antennae, the latter longer than body. The antennal tubercles are well developed, with the inner margins nearly straight and distinctly divergent. The median frontal tubercle is less well developed. The siphunculi are long, distinctly but usually only slightly swollen on apical half, with a clearly marked apical flange, and without regular reticulations before apex. The cauda is not very elongate, somewhat blunt at apex.

About 27 species mostly in North America, but with some in Europe and Asia. About half live on berries (Rubus: Rosaceae) and a few live on ferns. They have no sexual stage in the life cycle, they do not host alternate and are not ant attended.

Species Overview

 

Genus Anuraphis [Macrosiphini]

Anuraphis are medium sized aphids, but the fundatrices are large. The siphunculi are longer than the cauda and have closely-spaced rows of densely-packed spinules or nodules. The abdomen of the alate has rather flat round spinal and marginal tubercles on most tergites, and a dark patch centred on abdominal tergites 4-6 or 5-6.

There are about 10 Anuraphis species worldwide. The fundatrices feed in spring on pear (Pyrus, Rosaceae), typically crumpling or rolling the leaves into pseudogalls. Their offspring develop into alates which migrate to the roots of daisies (Asteraceae) and umbellifers (Apiaceae). They are sheltered by ants when living on umbellifer roots.

Species Overview

 

Genus Aspidaphis [Macrosiphini]

Aspidaphis are small dull green or yellowish brown aphids. They are characterised by having a cowl-like backward projection of abdominal tergites 8 which obscures the cauda in dorsal view. The antennae are short and have only 5 segments. Those of the apterae lack secondary rhinaria, whilst those of alates have secondary rhinaria on segments 3 or 3-4. The dorsum of the aptera is sclerotic or granulate with very short hairs. The siphunculi are either short, with the aperture positioned laterally before the tip, or are reduced to slightly elevated pores.

There are only two species in the genus Aspidaphis. They do not host alternate, and feed on either Polygonum (Aspidaphis adjuvans) or Festuca (Aspidaphis porosiphon).

Species overview

 

Genus Aulacorthum [Macrosiphini]

Medium sized aphids the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. The body is pear shaped. They may be yellowish, green, reddish or brown and often have a dark green or bownish patch at the base of each siphunculus. The antennal tubercles are well developed with near parallel inner sides. The antennae are usually longer than the body. The siphunculi are cylindrical or slightly swollen and the cauda is usually tongue shaped.

There are 48 species on a great variety of hosts. Some are host specific, but many are highly polyphagous and are important crop pests. They have no sexual stage in the life cycle, they do not host alternate and are not ant attended.

Species Overview

 

Genus Brachycaudus [Macrosiphini]

Rather small to medium-sized oval aphids the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. They have very low lateral prominences and the antennae are shorter than the body. The abdominal dorsum in the apterae is variably sclerotized and is never mealy or waxy. The siphunculi are short to moderate in length and the cauda is very short and often semicircular.

A genus of 50 species found mainly in the Palearctic. About 14 species have plum (Prunus spp) as the primary host. There are species groups associated with different secondary hosts - two of the most common species use daisies (Asteraceae). Other species do not host alternate, living year round on a variety of plant species. Some species still have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but most do not. Brachycaudus aphids may be attended by ants. Some are important crop or fruit tree pests.

Species Overview

 

Genus Brevicoryne [Macrosiphini]

Medium sized aphids that are grey or green with a dark head. Adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. The antennal tubercles are not developed. The body is covered with greyish-white mealy wax. The antennae are usually about half as long as body. The siphunculi are dusky or dark, barrel shaped with a small flange and usually somewhat shorter than the cauda. The cauda is short, broad and triangular.

There are about 9 species mainly feeding on different species of the cabbage family (Brassicaceae) but with some species on other plants such as goosefoot (Chenopodium: Amaranthaceae) and honeysuckle (Caprifoliaceae). They do not host alternate, but generally retain a sexual stage in the life cycle, with eggs produced to overwinter. They are not attended by ants. One species is an important pest of Brassica crops.

Species Overview

 

Genus Capitophorus [Macrosiphini]

Pale or almost translucent slender aphids with elongate legs and antennae. Wingless viviparae have long capitate hairs at least on the head and posterior abdominal segments. Winged viviparae only have short hairs and have a dark dorsal abdominal patch.

There are about 30 species worldwide. Some host alternate from oleasters (Elaeagnaceae) to daisies (Asteraceae) and docks (Polygonaceae) whilst others live year round on the secondary host.

Species Overview

 

Genus Carolinaia [Macrosiphini]

Sometimes aposematically-coloured on poison oak (Toxicodendron diversilobum) and related species. The antennal tubercles are weakly developed. Apterae generally have five segments in the antennae, whereas alatae have six. The antennal terminal process is elongate.The siphunculi are about one-fifth the length of the body, and either swollen in the middle (subgenera Carolinaia and Glabromyzus) or more or less cylindrical (Juncomyzus). The cauda is rather short and tapering.

There are 18-19 species recognised worldwide, in 3 subgenera. Most species are thought to host alternate between sumac (Rhus or Toxicodendron) and sedges (Cyperaceae). Some species appear to be anholocyclic on Rhus, whilst others persist parthenogenetically on Cyperaceae in warmer climates.

Species overview

 

Image copyright Claude Pilon, all rights reserved.

Genus Catamergus [Macrosiphini]

A small genus of pear-shaped medium-sized aphids. The antennal tubercles are well-developed. The antennae are 6-segmented, and the terminal process is long without numerous setae.The prothorax has marginal tubercles, and abdominal tubercles are present on segments II-VII. The siphunculi are slender, cylindrical, equal to or slightly longer than cauda. The cauda is elongate, broadly rounded apically, and the anal plate is entire.

There are only two species, one feeds on Impatiens spp., and the other on Polygonatum spp. Both are monoecious holocyclic and restricted to the Nearctic.

Species overview

 

Image copyright Claude Pilon, all rights reserved.

Genus Cavariella [Macrosiphini]

Small to medium-sized green, straw-coloured or ochreous-reddish aphids. Adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. The body is rather elongate and a little flattened. The antennal tubercles are low and the antennae are short in apterae, longer in alatae. The cuticle in apterae is strongly sclerotic, but not pigmented. Winged forms have a trapezoidal black patch on dorsum in front of the siphunculi. Siphunculi cylindrical or clavate with a small rim at apex, very distinctly longer than the cauda which is rather blunt. The supracaudal process on the precaudal tergite is usually diagnostic for the genus.

There are 31 species in the world. They host alternate from various willow (Salicaceae) species as the primary host to various umbellifers (Apiaceae) as the secondary host. Most species retain a sexual stage in the life cycle. They are not attended by ants.

Species Overview

 

Genus Ceruraphis [Macrosiphini]

Small to medium-sized dark aphids the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. The antennal tubercles are undeveloped or very weakly developed, not projecting beyond convex middle part of front of head in dorsal view. The siphunculi are entirely dark.

A small genus of only 4 species. They retain a sexual stage in their life cycle and host alternate between viburnum (Adoxaceae) as the primary host and sedges (Cyperaceae) as the secondary host. They are not attended by ants.

Species Overview

 

Genus Chaetosiphon [Macrosiphini]

Chaetosiphon aphids are rather small, pale yellow to green, and spindle-shaped. The head has well developed antennal tubercles and a fairly large median tubercle. The antennal terminal process is usually quite long. The dorsal hairs of apterae are capitate and usually arise from tubercles. The rostrum is rather long. Their dorsal cuticle is densely covered with small warts. Their siphunculi are pale and cylindrical. The cauda is elongate triangular and much shorter than the siphunculi. Alates have a dark head and thorax, much shorter non-capitate hairs, a large dark dorsal abdominal patch and dark wing veins.

There are 17 Chaetosiphon species worldwide living on the family Rosaceae. They do not host alternate and are not attended by ants. The males may be winged or wingless.

Species Overview

 

Genus Clypeoaphis [Macrosiphini]

Clypeoaphis are small pale aphids. They have no antennal tubercles, and the front of the head is convex. The clypeus is dark and bulbous. The antennae are usually six-segmented and much shorter than the body. The siphunculi are short, with a weak flange. The cauda is thumb-shaped and longer than the siphunculi.

There are one or possibly two species Clypeoaphis that feed on members of the amaranth family (Amaranthanceae). They do not host alternate and are not attended by ants.

Species Overview

 

Genus Coloradoa [Macrosiphini]

Coloradoa are small green or reddish globose (globe-shaped) aphids. They have a very convex frons with no antennal tubercles. Their antennae are always shorter than the body, and the terminal process is always longer than the base of the last antennal segment. The dorsal body hairs are short or very short and are expanded at the tip. The apical rostral segment is acutely pointed with concave sides. The siphunculi vary in size and shape.

There are 29 species of Coloradoa worldwide. They feed without host alternation on members of the tribe Anthemideae in the aster family (Asteraceae). Males are usually small and apterous

Species Overview

 

Genus Corylobium [Macrosiphini]

Green, sometimes reddish, medium sized spindle-shaped aphids the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless The antennae are longer than the body and the inner margins of the antennal tubercles diverge. The body has numerous capitate hairs arising from tubercles on the body - just visible in this image. The siphunculi are long and thin and the cauda is very short and triangular.

There is only 1 species in this genus which lives on hazel (Corylaceae). It is widely distributed in Europe and has been introduced to North America. It retains a sexual stage in its life cycle, but does not host alternate and is not attended by ants.

Species Overview

 

Genus Cryptomyzus [Macrosiphini]

A genus of fragile pale whitish, straw-coloured or very pale green aphids the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. The body has numerous capitate hairs. The dorsal cuticle in wingless forms is smooth, colourless and membranous. Winged forms have a blackish dorsal patch in front of siphunculi which may be broken up by colourless lines or patches. The siphunculi are slender very slightly widened distally and longer than the cauda. Cauda rather blunt.

Typically, Cryptomyzus retains a sexual stage in its life cycle and host alternate from species of currant (Ribes in Grossularicaceae) where they cause leaf distortion to various species of mint (Labiaceae). However, some forms live continuously on currant or mint.

Species Overview

 

Genus Cryptosiphum [Macrosiphini]

Cryptosiphum are rather small oval aphids that live within galls on mugworts (Artemisia species). Both apterae and alatae are covered in wax. Living in galls has resulted in a reduction of appendages (for example they have short legs and antennae) and other characters.

Worldwide, 8 or 9 Cryptosiphum species have been described. They feed on and gall several different Artemisia species. In central and western Europe different Cryptosiphum species utilise common mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) and field wormwood (Artemisia campestris). A further five Cryptosiphum speciues utilise a variety of Artemisia species in Asia.

Species overview

 

Genus Delphiniobium [Macrosiphini]

A genus of large aphids which tend to have aposematic colouration because they sequester toxins from the host plant Aconitum. The siphunculi are usually dark at least distally, often with a swollen section at about the midlength. They are 0.15-0.26 times the body length. The cauda is also dark. The thoracic spiracles are much larger than the abdominal ones.

There are eleven species described in this genus mostly found in East Asia. One species Delphiniobium junackianum (pictured here) has a wider distribution from north-west and central Europe to west Siberia. It feeds on monk's hood (Aconitum) and Delphinium, and produces sexual forms in autumn.

Species Overview

 

Image copyright Nigel Gilligan, all rights reserved.

Genus Dysaphis [Macrosiphini]

On the primary host they are medium-sized, plump-bodied aphids, greenish, bluish or pinkish grey in colour and covered in wax meal. The adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. Characteristic features are the short, often helmet-shaped cauda and the presence of spinal tubercles on head and posterior abdominal segments.

A palaearctic genus of about 110 species. Most species retain a sexual stage in the life cycle and host alternate. Spring colonies distort and discolour the leaves of apple and related trees (Rosaceae), before migrating to secondary hosts in umbellifers (Apiaceae) and other families. Colonies are almost always attended by ants. Several species are important pests of fruit trees.

Species Overview

 

Genus Elatobium [Macrosiphini]

Small elongate-oval aphids the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. Siphunculi are cylindrical, long, thin and pale, with a well developed apical flange. The cauda is pointed.

This genus comprises only 6 species which live on spruce (Picea spp.) and fir (Abies spp). They are cryptic when feeding. Some species (and some populations within species) have retained a sexual stage in the life cycle, whilst others have lost it. They do not host alternate and are not attended by ants. One species is an important pest of spruce.

Species Overview

 

Genus Ericaphis [Macrosiphini]

Ericaphis are rather small pale green or brown, often shiny aphids. The antennal and median tubercles on the head are variously developed and the antennae are shorter than the body. Apterae have no secondary rhinaria on their antennae, whilst those of alatae have a few on segment III only. Dorsal body hairs are short and blunt. The dorsal cuticle of apterae is wrinkled or corrugated. The apterae lack dark dorsal markings, but alatae have a dark dorsal abdominal patch. The siphunculi are of moderate length, cyclindrical or tapering, and often slightly curved outwards at the end. The cauda is finger or tongue-shaped.

Ericaphis feed on heaths (Ericaceae), Rosaceae and Liliaceae. There are nine species in the world of which 3 are native to Europe, and 6 to the Americas. Some of the American species have been introduced to Europe.

Species Overview

 

Genus Gypsoaphis [Macrosiphini]

Medium-sized wax-covered aphids found in North America. The antennal tubercles are weakly developed. The antennal terminal process is elongate, without numerous setae. The prothorax has conspicuous marginal tubercles. The abdomen of the apterae is without pigmented areas dorsally. Large marginal tubercles are present on abdominal segments II-VI. The siphunculi are reduced to pores. The cauda is semicircular to tongue-shaped, and the anal plate is entire.

There is only one species in genus Gypsoaphis, namely Gypsoaphis oestlundi, which feeds on honeysuckle (Lonicera).

Species overview

 

Image copyright Claude Pilon, all rights reserved.

Genus Hayhurstia [Macrosiphini]

Hayhurstia are medium-sized aphids, with very small slightly swollen siphunculi. The siphunculi have a small flange and are distinctly shorter than the cauda. The cauda is finger-shaped.

There is only one species in this genus. This feeds on members of the amaranth family (Amaranthaceae). They have a sexual stage in the life cycle overwintering as eggs, but there is no host alternation. The single species is thought to be an important vector of plant viruses. These viruses result in considerable yield loss of peppers (Capsicum spp.) and potatoes (Solanum tuberosum)

Species Overview

 

Genus Hyadaphis [Macrosiphini]

Medium sized elongate-oval aphids. The antennae are shorter than the body. Siphunculi are 0.6 - 1.4 x length of cauda and usually slightly swollen in middle or distal part, with an apical flange. The cauda is dark or pale and is tongue- or finger-shaped, at least 1.4◊ its basal width in dorsal view.

There are about thirteen described species in this genus. Several species are known to be pests, including Hyadaphis foeniculi (coriander aphid) and Hyadaphis passerinii (honeysuckle aphid). They host alternate from honeysuckle (Caprifoliaceae) species as the primary host to various umbellifers (Apiaceae) as the secondary host. Others complete their entire life cycle on honeysuckle.

Species Overview

 

Genus Hyalopteroides [Macrosiphini]

Medium sized elongate-oval green aphids, the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. Antennal tubercles are well developed but rather low. The antennae are shorter than the body. The siphunculi are short and cylindrical with a barely visible apical flange and the cauda is long, tongue-shaped and blunt.

There is only one species in this genus which lives along the midline on the uppersides of leaves of cocksfoot grass (Poaceae: Dactylis glomerata) in Europe east to Russia and in North America. Males have been recorded, but most populations have probably lost the sexual stage in the life cycle. It does not host alternate and is not attended by ants.

Species Overview

 

Genus Hyperomyzus [Macrosiphini]

Medium sized aphids, the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. The frontal region of head is smooth. The dorsum of abdomen is not sclerotic and pigmented. The siphunculi are swollen.

There are 18 species some of which host alternate with Currants (Ribes spp.) as the primary host and various daisies (Asteraceae) and Scrophulariaceae as secondary hosts. Others remain on a single host in those families. All species retain a sexual stage in the life cycle and overwinter as eggs. They are not attended by ants.

Species Overview

 

Genus Idiopterus [Macrosiphini]

Idiopterus are medium sized aphids with a wrinkled dorsal cuticle with reticulation formed by rows of small spicules. The head is rough with spicules. The antennal tubercles are large, with parallel inner sides with little sign of a median frontal tubercle. The antennae are longer than the body, with secondary rhinaria in both the apterae and alatae. The wings have a pattern of dark pigmentation and unusual venation.

There is only one species in the genus Idiopterus, namely Idiopterus nephrelepidis which feeds on ferns.

Species overview

 

Image copyright Dave Appleton, all rights reserved.

Genus Illinoia [Macrosiphini]

Medium-sized aphids, the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. The antennal tubercles are well developed with their inner faces divergent. The median tubercle is frequently also well developed. The siphunculi are slightly swollen on distal part, narrowing to reticulated subapical part (at least 3-4 rows of rather large polygonal cells). The cauda is shorter than siphunculus, slender and finger shaped.

There are about 45 mostly North American species, although some have been introduced to other parts of the world including Europe. Most species retain a sexual stage in the life cycle but there is no host alternation. Many species in the two main subgenera are associated with the heath and rhododendron family (Ericaceae), but others feed on taxonomically diverse plants. They are not attended by ants. Some species are important pests of ericaceous plants.

Species Overview

 

Genus Impatientinum [Macrosiphini]

Impatientinum are medium sized pear-shaped aphids. The dorsal cuticle is usually shiny black and strongly sclerotized. The head is smooth and dark with well developed antennal tubercles. Both the apterae and alatae have secondary rhinaria on antennal segment III or segments III-V. The siphunculi are black and tapering, and the cauda is pale and tongue-shaped.

There are six Impatientinum species in the world, four in the Palaearctic zone. The palaearctic species usually host alternate from greenbriers (Smilax) to balsams (Impatiens), but two invasive species live year round on different balsam species.

Species overview

 

Image copyright Marco de Haas, all rights reserved.

Jacksonia [Macrosiphini]

Rather small aphids, much like Myzus except for the unusual shape of the siphunculus. Their antennal tubercles are well developed, rough and broad, but the median frontal tubercle is not developed. There are no marginal tubercles. Jacksonia apterae have no secondary rhinaria whilst alatae have large protuberant secondary rhinaria on antennal segments III-V. The siphunculi are slender, thinnest in the middle, and without a flange.

Only three species are known in the genus Jacksonia: two feed on grasses, and one on bellflowers (Campanula).

Species Overview

 

Micrograph of clarified mount by permission, copyright Roger Blackman AWP all rights reserved.

Genus Liosomaphis [Macrosiphini]

Medium-sized aphids, the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. The head is smooth, with the antennal tubercles weakly developed. The dorsum is unpigmented in viviparous females but with some pigmentation in winged forms. The siphunculi are markedly clavate and swollen, with the maximum width of the swollen part broader than the base. Cauda tongue-shaped and longer than its basal width.

There are 5 species in this genus all living on barberry or Oregon grape (Berberidaceae). They retain a sexual stage in the life cycle but there is no host alternation. They are not attended by ants. One species is a pest of ornamental barberry bushes.

Species Overview

 

Genus Lipaphis [Macrosiphini]

Lipaphis are small to medium-sized greyish or brownish green aphids which are sometimes wax powdered. The antennae are shorter than the body and are without secondary rhinaria in the apterae. The dorsum of apterae is sclerotic with varying degrees of pigmentation. The siphunculi are cylindrical or slightly swollen on the distal part. The cauda is broad-based, tongue shaped or elongate triangular with 4-6 hairs. The alatae may have a complete series of abdominal cross bands or may have such bands only on the posterior tergites.

Lipaphis aphids feed without host alternation on members of the cabbage family (Brassicaceae).

Species overview

 

Genus Longicaudus [Macrosiphini]

Apterae are generally small to medium sized and pale coloured. The siphunculi are cone-shaped or cylindrical. With one exception (Longicaudus naumanni) the siphunculi are shorter than the cauda, often much shorter (<0.5 times). The siphunculi may be absent in fundatrices. The cauda is finger-shaped or tongue-shaped.

There are eight species in the genus most host alternating between rose (Rosa) and members of the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae)

Species Overview

 

Genus Macrosiphoniella [Macrosiphini]

Green to dark brown, often pulverulent aphids, the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. Dorsum not sclerotic, if pigmented then only in small localized hair-bearing sclerites. Siphunculi long, flangeless and cylindrical or nearly so, or with a slight taper from base to apex. The reticulate zone covers about one quarter the length of the siphunculi.

Lives on chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum), tansy (Tanacetum) and other members of the Anthemidae in the Asteraceae. They retain a sexual stage in the life cycle but there is no host alternation and they are not attended by ants. Several species can be important pests of herbs and chrysanthemum.

Species Overview

 

Genus Macrosiphum [Macrosiphini]

Large spindle-shaped pink or green aphids, with long legs and antennae, the latter usually longer than the body. The adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. The antennal tubercles are rather high, smooth, and divergent. Siphunculi are long, flanged and not swollen, with a zone of regular polygonal reticulations covering the one-tenth to one-sixth near the end of the siphunculus. The cauda is always pale and very elongate.

On rose (Rosaceae) and many other hosts including teasel (Dipsacaceae), Apiaceae, Valerianaceae and Ranunculaceae. They do not host alternate and are not attended by ants.

Species Overview

 

Genus Megoura [Macrosiphini]

Medium to large aphids, the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. Head with well-developed antennal tubercles, the inner faces of which are smooth and broadly divergent. Siphunculi somewhat swollen in middle, and either entirely black or dusky with black apices.

About 7 species feeding on members of the bean family (Fabaceae). They have a sexual stage in the life cycle overwintering as eggs, but there is no host alternation. They are not attended by ants. One species is an important vector of bean viruses which result in considerable yield loss.

Species Overview

 

Megourella [Macrosiphini]

Megourella are rather large, oval, swollen aphids. The antennae are about as long as the body with the terminal process markedly longer than the base of antennal segment VI. The abdominal tergum in both apterae and alatae is membranous, with longitudinal rows of large spinal, marginal and pleural scleroites bearing hairs with slightly expanded apices. The siphunculi are slightly swollen, but attenuated towards the apex, smooth or a little imbricated and sclerotic black. The cauda is elongated, shorter than the siphunculi and much paler.

Megourella aphids are similar to Megoura species, but Megoura aphids lack the dark dorsal spots. There are only two species in the genus (Megourella purpurea and Megourella tribulis). They are very similar in structure but very different in colour, and live on the stems of vetchlings (Lathyrus) and vetches (Vicia). Sexual morphs develop in autumn. Both species are found over much of Europe and in some adjoining countries.

Species overview

 

Genus Metopeurum [Macrosiphini]

Medium-sized aphids, the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. Antennal tubercles very weakly developed. Siphunculi thin dusky or dark over at least half of length, with polygonal reticulation usually extending over more than distal 20%. Cauda tapering, triangular, less than 1.5 times longer than its basal width. Note the photo is of alatiform 4th instar nymph, not the adult.

There are 11 species in this genus living primarily on daisies (Asteraceae). They have a sexual stage in the life cycle overwintering as eggs, but there is no host alternation. They may be attended by ants.

Species Overview

 

Genus Metopolophium [Macrosiphini]

Medium to large aphids, the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. Wingless adults have well-marked, rather divergent antennal tubercles, and a rather distinct though lower median tubercle. Siphunculi cylindrical, rather expanded at base; pale, not reticulate apically, and with a small to moderate apical flange. Cauda elongate, rather blunt. Wingless forms not usually pigmented, but winged forms may be.

Some species host alternate between rose (Rosaceae) and many species of grasses (Poaceae). They commonly have a sexual stage in the life cycle overwintering as eggs. However, some species spend the whole year on grasses overwintering viviparously.

Species Overview

 

Genus Microlophium [Macrosiphini]

Large (body length more than 3 mm.) spindle-shaped aphid, the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. Antennae much longer than body length. Antennal tubercles smooth, with inner faces divergent. Siphunculi long 2.3 - 3.1 times the length of the cauda, tapering with a large flange.

There are only four species in this genus living mostly on nettles (Urticaceae). They have a sexual stage in the life cycle overwintering as eggs. They are not attended by ants, unlike the other common species on nettles (Aphis urticae) which is nearly always ant-attended.

Species Overview

 

Genus Myzaphis [Macrosiphini]

Small elongate-oval dorso-ventrally flattened aphids. The head has a large median frontal process and a short antennal terminal process. The antennae are only about half the body length. The dorsum is sclerotic and ornamented with numerous small pits. The first tarsal joint is five haired. Their siphunculi are rather long and cylindrical with the distal part often curved outwards and slightly swollen. The cauda is tongue-shaped or triangular.

Myzaphis aphids feed on Rosa and Potentilla (the rose family, Rosaceae). There are seven species, six of which are native to Asia and Europe and one to Canada. Two species now have a cosmopolitan distribution.

Species Overview

 

Genus Myzus [Macrosiphini]

Rather small to medium-sized green, brownish, or blackish to shiny black aphids, sometimes rather flattened. Adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. Head with well-developed more or less convergent antennal tubercles. Antennae in wingless forms usually rather curved. Dorsal cuticle of wingless forms uniformly sclerotic, varying from nearly colourless to deep black. Winged forms with a solid pigmented area occupying the mid-abdominal dorsum, and further segmental bars. The siphunculi are rather long, tapering, usually distinctly flanged. The cauda is acutely triangular.

There are about 55 species. In colder climates they usually have a sexual stage in the life cycle alternating between various plum species (Prunus: Rosaceae) and a great variety of secondary hosts. In warmer climates they may reproduce viviparously throughout the year. They are not attended by ants. There are three highly polyphagous species which are important pests.

Species Overview

 

Genus Nasonovia [Macrosiphini]

Medium-sized green or reddish, rather shiny aphids with a well-marked dorsal sclerotic pattern of pigmented paired intersegmental muscle plates. Adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. There are distinct antennal and median tubercles and the antennae are rather long. In winged forms there are often dark segmental bars connecting the muscle plates on abdominal segments 3-5. The siphunculi are rather long, cylindrical, with little or no apical reticulation The cauda is elongate and rather blunt finger-shaped.

About 30 species worldwide which host alternate between currants (Grossulariaceae) and various daisies (Asteraceae), among which the most important are lettuce (Lactuca), Crepis and various species of Hieracium. They are not attended by ants. One species is an important cosmopolitan pest of lettuce.

Species Overview

 

Genus Nearctaphis [Macrosiphini]

There are 13 or 14 species, most if not all native to the Nearctic region, although one is found in Finland and north-east Russia and another is now distributed worldwide. Most host alternate between Pomoidea as primary hosts and Fabaceae or Orobrachaceae as secondary hosts.

Nearctaphis are small to medium sized aphids, mostly coloured dark green or brown. The antennal tubercles are poorly developed and the antennae are shorter than the body length. Secondary rhinaria are present on segments II-IV (-V) in alatae. The dorsum bears quite numerous long hairs with dark scleroites at the bases of hairs. Alatae have dark marginal sclerites and a dark patch on the dorsum. The siphunculi are short and tapering and have close-set rows of small spinules and a well-developed flange. The cauda is short, triangular or helmet-shaped.

Species overview

 

Image by permission, copyright Claude Pilon, all rights reserved.

Genus Neomyzus [Macrosiphini]

Medium-sized aphids with with distinctive black dorsal markings. The lateral frontal tubercles have converging inner sides. Alates have secondary rhinaria on antennal segment IV. They were previously placed as a subgenus of Aulacorthum but differ in several morphological features that place them closer to the Myzus group of genera.

There are about eight Asian species including one which is now cosmopolitan.

Species Overview

 

Genus Neotoxoptera [Macrosiphini]

These are medium-sized aphids which look rather like some Myzus species. The adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. The siphunculi are swollen and the wing veins are dark-bordered.

There are 6 species. Three species do not host alternate but spend their entire life cycle on onion (Alliaceae), Caryophyllaceae or Violaceae. They have no sexual stage in the life cycle but reproduce all year parthenogenetically. The other three species host alternate from Caprifoliaceae to generally unknown secondary hosts.

Species Overview

 

Genus Ovatomyzus [Macrosiphini]

A genus of very small fragile pale aphids the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. The characteristics of the genus are intermediate between Ovatus and Myzus. The apterae have well developed antennal tubercles with slightly diverging inner margins. The antennae are as long as the body or longer with a very long terminal process. The siphunculi are long, slender, cylindrical or slightly swollen. The cauda is tongue shaped, slightly constricted near the base.

There are 3 species worldwide. Ovatomyzus have lost the sexual stage in their life cycle, and feed all year round on plants in the mint (Lamiaceae) and borage (Boraginaceae) families.

Species Overview

 

Genus Ovatus [Macrosiphini]

Small to medium sized greenish aphids, the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. Antennae are curved and longer than the body. Antennal tubercles are well developed with two additional bumps on head The siphunculi are longer than the cauda. The winged forms have no black central abdominal patch.

There are about 10 palaearctic species of Ovatus, three of which host-alternate between hawthorn and Apple (Rosaceae: Pyroidea) and mints (Labiatae), while the others live all-year-round on the former secondary hosts. They are not attended by ants. One species is a pest of mint.

Species Overview

 

Genus Paramyzus [Macrosiphini]

Paramyzus are rather small pale shiny aphids resembling, but not necessarily closely related to, Myzus aphids. Paramyzus have well developed steep-sided antennal tubercles and long antennae, with a long terminal process. Their apterae have rather large secondary rhinaria on antennal segment III. Antennal and dorsal body hairs are very short. The apical rostral segment (RIV+V) is much longer than the second hind tarsal segment (HTII). The siphunculi are rather long and straight and slightly swollen with a distinct flange. The cauda is short and tongue shaped and bears 4-6 hairs.

There are three Palaearctic species of Paramyzus, two which feed on umbellifers (Apiaceae) and one of which feeds on cinquefoils and strawberries (Rosaceae). They do not host alternate, but live year-round on their respective hosts. Paramyzus are not attended by ants.

Species overview

 

Genus Phorodon [Macrosiphini]

Adult pale green to yellowish green aphids with darker green longitudinal stripes. The adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. Aphids are medium-sized on winter hosts (2.0 - 2.6mm long), but small on summer hosts. They have characteristic pointed projections on the inside of the antennal tubercles. The siphunculi are pale, medium length, thicker at their bases and slightly curved outwards at their tips. The cauda is short, pale and blunt. Winged forms have has a black patch of fused cross bars on the upper surface of the abdomen.

A small genus of 4 species in Europe, north Africa, and south-west Asia and introduced to North America and New Zealand. They have a sexual stage in the life cycle and alternate between the primary host of blackthorn and plum (Prunaceae) and the secondary host, hops (Cannabidaceae). They are not attended by ants. One species is the main pest on hops causing damage directly and through virus transmission.

Species Overview

 

Genus Pleotrichophorus [Macrosiphini]

Pleotrichophorus are medium-sized pale spindle-shaped aphids. They have fairly low antennal tubercles and a moderately developed median frontal tubercle. The antennae have a very long terminal process, and both apterae and alatae have secondary rhinaria on some of the antennal segments. The terminal (fused 4th and 5th) rostral segment is pointed or stiletto-shaped. The apterae have a membranous dorsum, with numerous thick, rather short fan-shaped or capitate hairs in 2-3 irregular transverse rows on each segment. The siphunculi are long and slender, sometimes slightly expanded at the apex with a small flange, and the cauda is finger-shaped, tongue shaped or triangular.

Alates have dark intersegmental sclerites and dusky marginal sclerites. The veins on the forewings are conspicuously dark-bordered.

There are about 60 species of Pleotrichophorus worldwide, mostly in the Americas, but with seven in Europe. They do not host alternate, but remain all year on members of the Asteraceae, especially those in the tribe Anthemideae. Pleotrichophorus aphids are not attended by ants.

Species overview

 

Genus Plocamaphis [Macrosiphini] previously Pterocommatinae [Pterocommatini]

Plocamaphis is a small genus comprising only five species. They are large rather sparsely hairy aphids, less hairy than Pterocomma aphids to which they are related. Plocamaphis are brown or yellowish brown, but the colour is usually masked by dense floculent wax. They have flangeless siphunculi.

Plocamaphis feed low down on the stems or on the roots of willow (Salix). They are not ant attended, but sometimes occur in mixed colonies with ant-attended species such as Tuberolachnus salignus.

Species overview

 

Image copyright Andy Brown, all rights reserved.

Genus Pterocomma [Macrosiphini] previously Pterocommatinae [Pterocommatini]

Brownish, grey or green with white, yellow or red siphunculi. The body is wax powdered, especially along segment borders, and is densely hairy. The antennae and legs are similarly hairy. The antennae are about half as long as body. The siphunculi are longer than wide, cylindrical or swollen with a more or less distinct flange.

About 30 species of robust, hairy aphids living on willows (Salicaceae) in the northern hemisphere. They have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but do not host alternate. Their colonies on the bark of branches and twigs are almost always attended by ants

Species overview

 

Genus Rhopalomyzus [Macrosiphini]

Medium-sized yellowish to black aphids, the adult viviparae of which may be winged or wingless. The head has well-developed antennal tubercles. Marginal tubercles are frequently present on the prothorax and abdominal segments 2-6. The siphunculi are swollen with a small, but well developed flange, slightly constricted just under the flange. The cauda is tongue-shaped and shorter than the siphunculus. Winged forms have head, thorax and dorsal abdominal cross bars or a large dorsal abdominal patch.

There are 9 species host alternating from honeysuckle (Lonicera) to grasses. They have a sexual stage in the life cycle overwintering as eggs on honeysuckle.

Species Overview

 

Genus Rhopalosiphoninus [Macrosiphini]

Medium sized aphids either with the frontal region of head adorned with small scabrous spinules, or with the abdominal dorsum is more or less sclerotic and pigmented. Apart from a constriction near the apex, the apical two thirds of the siphunculi are strongly and sharply swollen, the apical part before the flange with reticulate sculpturing. The cauda is short and triangular.

There are about 19 species living on a great variety of plants, including Labiatae, Rosaceae, Iridaceae, Araliaceae and Grossulariaceae. They often live in cryptic habitats near the ground. Some species host alternate but others remain on one host.

Species Overview

 

Genus Sitobion [Macrosiphini]

Medium-sized green to dull brownish-green or reddish-brown aphids, with blackish antennae. Adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. They typically have an intersegmental sclerotic pattern, but some species may have a more or less completely brownish sclerotic tergum. Siphunculi are rather long, blackish and sclerotic, with the apical part reticulated and a small but distinct flange. The cauda is pale, elongate and finger-shaped from half to nine-tenths as long as siphunculi.

A large genus of over 80 species worldwide. A few species alternate from Rosaceae to grasses, but the majority of species remain on grasses (Poaceae) all year. On grasses they may or may not have a sexual stage. Even within one species, clones may produce males and egg laying females in the autumn or only produce parthenogenetic females. They are not attended by ants. At least one species is a serious pest of cereals.

Species Overview

 

Genus Staegeriella [Macrosiphini]

Staegeriella are rather small greyish-green oval aphids. They have very low divergent antennal tubercles. The antennae are much shorter than the body, with the terminal process about twice as long as the base of the last segment. Dorsal body hairs are very short. The dorsal body cuticle is membranous apart from dusky transverse bars on abdominal tergites VII and VIII. The siphunculi are truncate, shorter than the cauda, and less than twice as long as their basal widths. The cauda is tongue- or finger-shaped. Alatae have pale marginal sclerites and dorsal cross bands on the posterior tergites.

There are only 1-2 species in the genus. Staegeriella necopinata is well known, but other possible species are so far unnamed. Staegeriella necopinata feeds on bedstraws (Galium species) and possibly Coprosma and/or woodruff (Asperula).

Species overview

 

Genus Staticobium [Macrosiphini]

Staticobium are medium to large aphids. The adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. In both apterae and alates the lateral frontal tubercles are broad, low and smooth. Their antennae have a relatively long terminal process with a few rhinaria on segment III. Spiracles are covered by tubercle-like opercula, an adaptation to regular immersion. The siphunculi are more or less cylindrical , tapering, sclerotic and pigmented with reticulation below a small flange. Staticobium aphids are morphologically similar to Macrosiphoniella, but the antesiphuncular sclerites are absent. They are also similar to Sitobion aphids, but the dorsum is not completely sclerotic, pleurospinal sclerites are absent from the alate and the reticulate area on the siphunculus is larger than in Sitobion.

Staticobium feed on members of the Plumbaginaceae. They are not visited by ants. The distribution is holarctic with 12 species worldwide.

Species Overview

 

Genus Tubaphis [Macrosiphini]

Tubaphis are small pale spindle-shaped aphids. The apterae have fairly well developed, widely separated antennal tubercles, with steep sided inner faces. The antennae are as long as the body or longer, with an unusually thin basal part to the last segment. The hairs on the dorsal body and antennae are very short and blunt, and the dorsal cuticle is markedly wrinkled. The siphunculi are cylindrical, thin but with a broader base and with a constriction below the apical flange. The cauda is short, tongue shaped, has a distinctive constriction at the base and bears 4 hairs. The alates do not have a dark abdominal patch, but do have numerous secondary rhinaria on the third abdominal segment, as well as a few on other antennal segments.

There are only 2 Tubaphis species worldwide: Tubaphis clematophila and Tubaphis ranunculina. Tubaphis live without host alternation on buttercups and/or clematis (Ranunculaceae).

Species overview

 

Genus Uroleucon [Macrosiphini]

Medium-sized to rather large aphids. Adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. The siphunculi are long with a zone of polygonal reticulation occupying the subapical 0.15-0.4 of length. The dorsal hairs are not thick and distinctly capitate.

A large genus of 226 species distributed worldwide associated almost entirely with daisies (Asteraceae) and bellflowers (Campanulaceae). They do not host alternate, but usually have a sexual stage in their life cycle. Some species may be ant attended.

Species Overview

 

Genus Utamphorophora [Macrosiphini]

Utamphorophora are medium to large aphids with the antennal tubercles moderately developed, their inner side parallel or diverging with processes. The antennae are about as long as the body or longer, with inconspicuous hairs. Apterae are with or without secondary rhinaria. Their siphunculi are rather long and more or less swollen. The cauda is elongate, constricted near the middle.

There are 13 species in the world, most of them in America and East Asia. The ancestor of the group probably host alternated between Rosaceae and grasses.

Species overview

 

Genus Wahlgreniella [Macrosiphini]

Rather large aphids which are similar to Amphorophora in many respects, but have fewer caudal hairs. Adult viviparae may be winged or wingless. The antennal tubercles are well developed with diverging or parallel inner sides. Their antennae are rather long and thin. The siphunculi are long and swollen with no reticulation and a distinct flange. The cauda is tongue shaped.

A small genus with only 6 species in the world. Most live on plants of the heather family (Ericacaceae), but with one on rose (Rosaceae) in North America. They do not host alternate, except perhaps Wahlgreniella nervata which may alternate from Arbutus to Rosa. They are not ant attended.

Species Overview

 

Acknowledgements

We particularly thank Colin Favret and Roger Blackman, who have provided invaluable assistance. Most of the subfamily diagnoses have been taken from Heie & Wegierek (2009b), Quednau (1999, 2003, 2010) and Blackman & Eastop (2021), with additional material from Russell (1982),Stroyan (1977), Stroyan (1984) and many others listed in the references for these pages.

We also thank Roger Blackman, Andy Brown, Nigel Gilligan and Marco de Haas for allowing us to reproduce their images, above. Note: Any images on pages that are not individually credited are copyright InfluentialPoints under a Creative Commons Attribution License.

Any errors in identification or information are ours alone, and we would be very grateful for any corrections. For assistance on the terms used for aphid morphology we suggest the figure provided by Blackman & Eastop (2006).

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