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Aphid Genera : Calaphidinae
Tribes Calaphidini & PanaphidiniOn this page: Tribe Calaphidini subtribe Calaphidina subtribe Monaphidina Tribe Panaphidini subtribe Myzocallidina subtribe Panaphidina
The Calaphidinae are the second largest subfamily in the Aphididae with at least 358 species in 62 genera in 2 tribes: the Calaphidini and Panaphidini. Tribe Calaphidini has 2 subtribes, the Calaphidina and Monaphidina. Tribe Panaphidini has subtribes Myzocallidina and Panaphidina. More detail
Tribe Calaphidini : subtribe CalaphidinaGenera
Genus Betulaphis [Calaphidini]
Small, rather flat oval aphids with short 6-segmented antennae. Adult viviparae may be winged or wingless with a short, conical cauda and a bilobed anal plate. Oviparae have dark dorsal markings and the posterior abdomen is extended as an egg-laying organ. Males are wingless with extensive dark dorsal markings.
A genus of 6 or 7 species rather evenly distributed through the holarctic usually feeding on the undersides of birch (Betula spp.) leaves. They have a sexual stage in their life cycle but do not host alternate and are not attended by ants.
Genus Calaphis [Calaphidini]
Delicate pale-coloured aphids with rather long thin legs. The antennal tubercles are well-developed and the antennae are longer than the body. They sometimes have distinctive markings and/or dark wing veins, and the radial sector in the forewing is absent or indistinct. In some species all viviparae are alate but others have both apterous and alate viviparae.
There are about 15 species, 11 of which are in North America, two are European and one is east Asian. All except one live on birch (Betula spp.). They have a sexual stage in their life cycle but do not host alternate and are usually not attended by ants.
Genus Callipterinella [Calaphidini]
Aphids are small to medium-sized and the viviparae may be winged or wingless. They are very variable in colour from green to brown, yellow or reddish commonly with a brown vertex to the head and usually other dark dorsal markings. The body is covered with long strong hairs and the antennae are shorter than the body. The cauda is constricted and knobbed, and the siphunculi are dark with rows of minute spinules. Winged forms have the wing venation strongly marked.
A genus of three species all of which live on birch (Betula) leaves or growing shoots. Colonies may be dispersed or aggregated. They have a sexual stage in their life cycle, but do not host alternate. They are usually attended by ants.
Genus Clethrobius [Calaphidini]
Large hairy brown aphids. All adult viviparae and males are winged; the ovipara is wingless. The antennae are shorter than the body. The abdominal dorsum has pigmentation confined to marginal sclerites plus a few bands. There are also bands of light wax pulverulence on the abdomen. The siphunculi are short and truncate, and the cauda is knobbed.
Three or four palaearctic species living on twigs and young branches of alder (Alnus) and birch (Betula) species. They have a sexual stage in their life cycle, but do not host alternate. They may be attended by ants.
Genus Euceraphis [Calaphidini]
Rather large active but fragile aphids with long thin legs. All adults apart from oviparae are winged insects. They secrete a bluish white wax, often in the form of tufts on their legs. The antennae are usually longer than the body. The birch-feeding species may have black dorsal abdominal markings. The cauda is knobbed and the anal plate is rounded. The oviparae are large, apterous, yellowish to dark brown with dark dorsal abdominal markings, and with the posterior abdominal segments extended into an ovipositor-like structure.
A genus of 6 or more species living on the young shoots or the underside of birch and alder (Betulaceae). Adults may be found as accidentals on many plants besides their true hosts. They have a sexual stage in their life cycle, but do not host alternate and are not attended by ants. One species is considered a pest of ornamental birch varieties.
Hannabura are rather small spindle-shaped aphids. Their antennae are much longer than the body length. On the frontal margin of the head there are numerous tubercles each of which bear a long capitate hair. The thorax and abdomen have similar hair-bearing tubercles. The legs are slender, the hind legs being much the longest. The siphunculi of the aptera are short, but distinctly longer than their basal diameter, and with an apical constriction. The cauda is small and rounded. The genital plate has 6 long tubercles, the middle two being the largest, each bearing a long, broad capitate hair.
There are only two species in the genus Hannabura, both of which feed on alder (Alnus) sppecies. Hannabura alnicola is found on several Alnus spp. in Japan, and Hannabura alnosa is found on Alnus rugosa in north-eastern North America.
Image by permission, copyright Claude Pilon, all rights reserved.
Genus Symydobius [Calaphidini]
Medium to large, rather shiny dark brown aphids. Both winged and wingless adult viviparous females occur. Siphunculi (when present) are small and truncate. Antennae are dark or with the basal half of the 4th and 5th segments conspicuously paler. Alates (shown here) have the wing veins brownish bordered and usually have broad dark transverse bands on each tergite. Males are wingless, and oviparae have the posterior abdominal segments extended into an ovipositor-like structure.
Seven species forming colonies on the branches and twigs of birch and alder (Betulaceae). They have a sexual stage in their life cycle, but do not host alternate. They are always attended by ants.
Tribe Calaphidini : subtribe MonaphidinaGenera
Genus Crypturaphis [Calaphidini]
Wingless females are dorsoventrally flattened and have peculiar projections on the head and prothorax. The antennae are shorter than the body. The apterae resemble coccids rather than aphids. Alates have a more typical 'aphid appearance'.
This genus has only one species, which lives on the leaves of Italian alder (Alnus cordata). It has a sexual stage in its life cycle, but does not host alternate. It is not attended by ants.
Genus Monaphis [Calaphidini]
Very large aphids with a body length of 3.3 - 4.3 mm. All adult viviparae are winged. They are robust, ventrally flattened, green aphids with very long thick black antennae and a conspicuous elongate dark pterostigma in the forewing.
There is only one species in this genus which lives solitarily on birch ( Betula spp.) in Europe and much of Asia; also recorded from the USA. It has a sexual stage in is life cycle, but does not host alternate and is not attended by ants.
Tribe Panaphidini : subtribe MyzocallidinaGenera
Genus Hoplocallis [Panaphidini]
Hoplocallis are small aphids related to Myzocallis. All adult viviparae are winged. Unlike Myzocallis aphids the antennal terminal process is always shorter than the base of the sixth antennal segment. Also the head and prothorax have a median longitudinal pale stripe extending backward from the median ocellus between bands of pigment. The pronotum has anterior and posterior spinal and marginal clusters of small hairs. The abdomen has paired dark spinal sclerites that are fused posteriorly across midline on some or all of the tergites.
There are four Hoplocallis species in Europe and Asia, which all feed on oak (Quercus).
Genus Hoplochaitophorus [Panaphidini]
Hoplochaitophorus are oak-feeding aphids in North America that have Chaitophorus-like pigmented spiny dorsal hairs. Their antennae are 6-segmented and the terminal process is short. The head, thorax and abdomen of apterae have prominent, long, thick spines over a tuberculate dorsum; alatae are likewise armed with much shorter and less conspicuous spine-like hairs. The abdomen of the aptera bears small indistinct or large paired rectangular patches on each tergite. The siphunculi are short, smooth, and without setae; they are somewhat flared apically, but have no apical flange. The cauda is knobbed and the anal plate is weakly bilobed.
Hoplochaitophorus feed on various oak (Quercus) species. Where known, they live on the leaves in dense colonies. Oviparae and males develop in autumn. The genus is probably more closely related to the genus Neosymydobius than to Chaitophorus. They are restricted to North America.
Image copyright Claude Pilon, all rights reserved.
Genus Myzocallis [Panaphidini]
Small, delicate, usually yellowish aphids with a knobbed cauda and bilobed anal plate, Immatures usually have long, capitate dorsal hairs. Adult viviparae are all winged, except in a few species. The forewings are variably pigmented, but there is generally at least a dark spot at the base of the pterostigma.
About 40 species living on oaks and chestnuts (Fagaceae). They have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but do not host alternate and are not attended by ants.
Genus Tuberculatus [Panaphidini]
Mostly small species (usually body length 1.5 - 2.5 mm). All viviparae and males are winged and have one or more abdominal spinal tubercles. The antennae are as long or longer than the body. The siphunculi are short and truncate and the cauda is knobbed.
There are about 60 species of this genus feeding on oak and chestnut (Fagaceae). Some well-defined subgenera have a limited distribution. They have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but do not host alternate and are not attended by ants.
Tribe Panaphidini : subtribe PanaphidinaGenera
Genus Appendiseta [Panaphidini]
This North American genus is related to Pterocallis. They differ from that genus in having two pairs of anterior prothoracic marginal hairs and a small hair arising from the siphunculus, on the ventral side near its base.
The genus has only one species which feeds on Robinia (black locust).
Genus Chromaphis [Panaphidini]
Small pale yellow aphids with all viviparae winged. The antennae are short and there are small pairs of spinal spots on abdominal tergites 4-5. The siphunculi are truncate conical and flanged.
There are just 2 species in this genus feeding on the undersides of Walnut (Juglans spp.) leaves. They have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but do not host alternate and are not attended by ants.
Genus Ctenocallis [Panaphidini]
Ctenocallis are small to medium size aphids, with the body of the aptera bearing long finger-like marginal backwardly directing processes. The siphunculi are short, truncate, and are situated at the base of the marginal processes on abdominal tergite VI.
The Ctenocallis genus contains only three species, all feeding on members of the Fabaceae. Each has its own distribution in Europe and North Africa (Atlantic, Pannonian and Mediterranean).
Genus Eucallipterus [Panaphidini]
Rather small aphids with all viviparae winged. They are active, delicate aphids with long thin legs. The antennae are about as long as the body and they have truncate siphunculi, a knobbed cauda and a deeply cleft anal plate. The dark spots on the wings are conspicuous.
Possibly three species worldwide feeding on the undersides of leaves of lime (Tilia spp.). They have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but do not host alternate and are not attended by ants.
Genus Mesocallis [Panaphidini]
Mesocallis are pale yellow, slender-bodied aphids with both alate and apterous morphs known in some species. The antennae are much shorter than the body, with the terminal process about as long as the base of that segment. The rostrum reaches far beyond the first coxae. The lobes of the mesonotum are smooth, the abdomen is without spinal processes, and paramedian hairs are mostly on wart-like elevations. In both apterae & alatae the dorsal body hairs have round knobs at the apex. The fore tibiae are often darkened. The siphunculi are pale and truncated without a flange, the cauda is knobbed and the anal plate is bilobed.
Mesocallis aphids mostly feed on trees in the birch family (Betulaceae) including birch (Betula), hornbeam (Carpinus), alder (Alnus) and hazel (Corylus). Eleven species have been described, although some are little known. Mesocallis species are restricted to east Asia.
Image copyright Akihide Koguchi, all rights reserved.
Genus Monellia [Panaphidini]
Monellia are rather small yellowish aphids, with all viviparae winged. The alatae have a flattened body, and two pair of conspicuous tubercles on the head. That part of antennal segment III that bears the secondary rhinaria is swollen. The wings are held horizontal at rest. The siphunculi are hemispherical, with one curved hair on the posterior edge. The legs have the fore coxae greatly enlarged. The cauda is knobbed, and the anal plate is bilobed.
There are only four species in the genus Monellia, all feeding on various species of hickory (Carya). Monellia species are all native to North America, but Monellia caryella has been introduced as a pecan pest to South America, southern Europe and the Middle East.
Image copyright M.J. Hatfield, under a CCA 3.0 License.
Genus Monelliopsis [Panaphidini]
All viviparae of Monelliopsis are alate. Hairs on the head are sometimes on wart-like elevations or processes. The terminal process is often shorter than, or roughly equal to the base of antennal segment VI. In some species the thorax has spinal setae on wartlike elevations. The wings are held upright at rest (cf. Monellia which lay their wings flat). The fore-coxae are greatly enlarged. Marginal tubercles are developed on tergites I-V, those of tergite V often with a black spot. The siphunculi are nearly poriform, the cauda is knobbed, and the anal plate bilobate.
There are ten species in the genus Monelliopsis. Most feed on walnuts (Juglans species), although some also visit pecan trees (Carya spp.), and three only feed on pecan. They are all native to North America, but at least two species have been introduced to walnut or pecan producing countries in Europe, Asia or Africa.
Image copyright Claude Pilon, all rights reserved.
Genus Panaphis [Panaphidini]
These are large distinctive aphids with short antennae only about 0.3-0.4 times the body length. All viviparous females are winged. The wings have the veins dark bordered with dark spots near the wing margin. The abdomen has dark marginal sclerites, broad dark bands across tergites 3-7, broken ones across tergites l - 2 and a small trapezoid sclerite on tergite 8. The siphunculi are short, truncate and without a flange. The cauda has an elongate oval knob.
There are 3 described species all living on walnut (Juglandaceae). They typically feed along the midrib of the upper surface of the leaves. They are closely related and could perhaps be geographic variants of a single species. They have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but do not host alternate and are not attended by ants. They can be a serious pest on walnuts
Genus Pterocallis [Panaphidini]
Small pale aphids. The antennae are usually somewhat shorter than the body with a short terminal process. The siphunculi are short and truncated and the cauda is knobbed. Apterous viviparae occur more commonly than in most Calaphidinae.
A genus of thirteen species associated especially with alder (Alnus and hazel (Corylus) in the Betulaceae. They have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but do not host alternate. They are usually dispersed on the undersides of leaves, and are mostly not attended by ants.
Genus Takecallis [Panaphidini]
Small delicate narrow-bodied aphids with a knobbed cauda. The clypeus bears a forward directed tubercle, and the ratio of the terminal process of the last antennal segment to its base is about 1. Usually all viviparae are alate.
Five species on bamboo (Bambuseae). The genus is oriental in origin, but several species are now widely distributed.
Genus Therioaphis [Panaphidini]
Therioaphis viviparae may be apterous or alate (all alate for one species). They are rather small to medium-sized yellowish aphids. The terminal process is slightly shorter to slightly longer than the basal part of antennal segment VI. The antennal hairs are shorter than basal diameter of antennal segment III. The rostrum is short, not reaching the middle coxae. The dorsal body hairs are situated on individual pigmented scleroites. The front coxae are very much enlarged relative to the middle and hind coxae. The siphunculi are stump-shaped, flangeless, and variably rugose, lying just anterodorsal to the marginal sclerite of tergite 6. The cauda is rather large, with an elongate knob. The sclerotic markings of wings and body of alatae are pale to darkish grey or brown, not black. The head of the alate has a ventral dark band running transversely between the inner margins of the compound eyes.
Therioaphis feed on members of the pea and bean family (Fabaceae). There are about 30 Therioaphis species, of which half are restricted to south-east Europe and the Middle East. Others are confined to northern Europe, and a few have a cosmopolitan distribution.
Genus Tinocallis [Panaphidini]
Mostly small species. All viviparae are winged and usually have paired spinal and marginal tubercular processes. Some species have conspicuous black markings on dorsal body and/or forewings. The antennae are as long as or shorter than the body. The siphunculi are stump shaped and the cauda is knobbed.
There are about 18 species usually associated with elms (Ulmaceae), although species have also been described from Lythraceae and other families. They have a sexual stage in the life cycle, but do not host alternate and are not attended by ants.