Biology, images, analysis, design...
|"It has long been an axiom of mine that the little things are infinitely the most important" |
Biology and MorphologyOn this page: Biology Morphology Genera Tribe Cervaphidini Tribe Greenedeini Tribe Schoutedinii
The Greenideinae have 150 species in 16 genera and 3 tribes (Cervaphidini, Greenedeini, Schoutediini). They are found on the leaves and shoots of dicotyledonous trees and shrubs. There is no host alternation. Species are sometimes attended by ants. The time for production of sexuales is variable. Like the Aiceoninae, the oviparae of some species lay stalked eggs. Species in the Greenideinae are largely confined to Southeast Asia, China and India, but some species like Greenidea ficicola have become much more widespread. Fossils of this group have been found in Yugoslavia. Some species are considered pests, for example Cervaphis rappardi on pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) in India.
Adult Greenideinae viviparae may be apterous or alate. Apterae & alatae usually have either 5- or 6- (rarely 4-) segmented antennae. The terminal process is often shorter than and rarely more than twice as long as the base of the last segment. Apterae of Schoutediini and Cervaphidini only have triommatidia as eyes, but Greenedeini have compound eyes. Most genera have a more or less distinct division of the distal segment (IV+V) of rostrum into two parts. The seventh abdominal tergite of Schoutedenia and other genera bears a pair of projections about as long as antennal segment IV.
The spiracles of the seventh abdominal segment are often much less evident than those of more anterior segments. The siphunculi are either short and conical, of medium length or very long, often curved outwards and bearing many hairs, in several cases with reticulation. The cauda is usually either broadly rounded or triangular, never tongue-shaped or knobbed. The anus is usually surrounded by an apparently wax secreting area. Alatae (see picture below) have the distance between bases of cubitus-branches on wing short.
Greenidea ficicola alate. Image copyright S.E. Thorpe under the Creative Commons CC) 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication.
The Greenideinae have 150 species in 16 genera and 3 tribes: the Cervaphidini, Greenedeini and Schoutedinii.
Greenidea aphids are characterized by having numerous stiff hairs on the dorsum and siphunculi. The abdominal tergum is mostly sclerotic, pale to blackish brown with many stiff hairs which nearly always have serrated, forked or branched apices. The siphunculi are variable in shape and length, but in apterae are always more-or-less curved outwards, narrowing to the base and to apex. The siphunculi are always covered with long hairs. The cauda is more or less semicircular with, at its apex, a style-like process which may be only a small point, but is frequently twice as long as its basal width.
Greenidea feed on the twigs and undersides of leaves of various trees. Some of the most common and widespread species seem to be mainly or entirely anholocyclic. However, other species produce winged males and oviparae in spring and summer. They are mostly restricted to East and Southern Asia, but two Greenidea species have proved invasive ouside their native distributions.
Image copyright Jeffrey W. Lotz, Florida Dept. Agric, Bugwood.org under a Creative Commons license.