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Just a note

Other shapes for cumulative distributions are:
  1. shaped if the data were skewed to the left
  2. if the distribution has a bell-shaped or normal distribution.
  3. a shaped distribution indicates all values of x are similarly frequent. This is known as a uniform distribution and, although theoretically useful, is comparatively rare.

R can produce similar graphs as follows:



  • We used cumsum to obtain cumulative frequencies, and dividing by the total frequency, sum(f), to get cumulative relative frequencies.