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Just a note

P-values are much used in reporting the results of statistical tests because they describe the relative rank of your observed result within a theoretical set of similarly derived results.

By convention, when using p-values to report test results, the P is written as it is at the beginning of this note - as an italicised capital. Unit 5 explores the reasoning underlying P-values of statistical tests - including their relation to cumulative proportions and relative ranks.