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Just a note

For some measurements you may not have to worry too much about validity. If for example you are working in the laboratory and use a good quality mercury-in-glass thermometer, then you can probably accept that your measurements are valid.

But if you are weighing cattle in the field, you may have to use a much less accurate device such as a weigh bridge - or even use a surrogate variable such as a weigh band. Such measuring devices should be validated.