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Just a note

Since some of these formulae are too long to show on the graph, we have indicated them using a single letter (such as N), and listed the values they need in brackets afterwards. This is known as function notation.

A 'function' simply means a formula but, instead of being written (for example) a = b + c d - cb, to save space it is written (for example) as a = F(b,c,d) and F is described elsewhere.

As we noted earlier, the 'general' normal distribution function (N) requires three values to calculate a proportion corresponding to x - namely, x, μ, and σ. Whereas, the 'standard' normal distribution function (Φ, the Greek letter F) only needs one value: x - because the mean and standard deviation are assumed to be 0 and 1.