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Just a note

This two-stage randomization is used because we do not know how much each calf differs in its attractiveness to the insects, nor how much each calf pen differs in the number of insects in its vicinity. In effect therefore, we are randomizing which treatments are applied to each calf-pen combination.

Notice however that, unless the pens are very widely separated indeed, we cannot be certain that our treatments cannot interact. The only alternative to this would be to 'block' our groups according to their relative location - which would complicate our analysis somewhat, and may be impossible on a small farm.