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Just a note

CL   =   a − b     CU   =   a + b
c c
  • CL and CU are the lower and upper confidence limits,
  • a = p +(z2/2n) ,
    b  =  z
    pq + (z2/4n)
  • c = 1+ z2/n,
  • p and q are the proportions in the sample with and without the character of interest,
  • n is the sample size,
  • z is the 1 − α/2 percentile of the standard normal distribution where α is the significance level; for a 95% confidence interval z = 1.96.